В резултат на многогодишното използване на почвите за производство на растителна продукция и прилагането на някои неподходящи практики като изгаряне на растителните остатъци, използване на тежки енергонаситени машини в периоди на повишена влажност на почвата, многократното и неконтролирано преминаване на машинотракторните агрегати по повърхността и, ежегодното изораване само на определена дълбочина, обработване на почвата по посока на склона, а като добавка и промените в климата, основно изразяващи се в редуване на екстремни валежи и продължителни сушави периоди, деградират земеделските земи. Около 50% от тях остават за 5-6 месеца без растителна покривка и това неминуемо води до трайно влошаване на свойствата им. Първо се влошават физико-механичните свойства, на почвите, следвани от влошаване на химичните и биологични такива. Насърчаване прилагането на технологии за опазване на почвите могат да спомогнат за решаване на редица проблеми, свързани с деградирането им.
Mechanization in Agriculture
Vol. 61 (2015), Issue 6
Table of Contents
On the basis of experimental data the analysis of dynamics of processes of regulation of thermal regimes in dryers with a gravitational moving layer is made. As the object of control, the dryer is a difficult dynamic system. This is the multiply connected, the distributed dynamical object with considerable inertia and with transport lag. Its static characteristics are nonlinear. It is established, that the humidity and velocity of the grain layer affect its aerodynamic resistance. In the manufacturing conditions, their changing excite considerable fluctuation of the gas flow and the heat in the camera of dryer, leading to fluctuations in the temperature of grain. In this connection, it is established that stabilization of temperature of the heat carrier does not provide stabilization of temperature of grain. For the best stabilization of regimes, the system of regulation of amount of heat in the camera of dryer is offered. The system includes a control loop of temperature and a control loop of speed of gas, whose works provide stabilization of heat flow.
Optimal parameters of extrusion process are grounded and experimental extruder for processing finedispersing tea mass is made on the basis of carried out theoretical and experimental researches. Energy and resourcesaving marchinery technology of processing granular tea of high quality was worked out and improved on the base of extruder. The main physicomechanical and chemical indicators of initial raw material and granular tea were defined. Considerable superiority of the new energy and resourcesaving technology of processing granular tea compared with the acting one according to quality and chemical composition of made product was established. Parameters of producing granular natural and multicomponent tea with additive of medicinal – nutritional raw materials were worked out at an invension level.
In this article is set out energy-saving technology of oilseeds cultivation as minimizing tillage (using erosion control instruments) to ensure rational use of energy, restore soil fertility, which is optimized ecological state agro-ecosystems. The substantiation of improvement of eco-phyto-sanitary condition of crops, depending on the use of rational methods of energy-saving technology, which reduces the total cost of energy for 24,3-32,5%, the volume of fuel consumption, which improves productivity and increases crop yield at 21-29 %.
Almost a third of the world’s consumption of fuel and energy resources make up the loss, that is inappropriately expended energy. It is impossible to completely eliminate the inefficient use of resources and energy. However, the implementation of energy saving programs and integrated application of energy efficient technologies leads to a reduction in the consumption of fuel and energy resources. Russia’s place in the field of energy efficiency among the economically developed countries are not the most promising, and it is determined by different factors.
The results of theoretical calculation of biogas yield in psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, as well as in the combined fermentation of the substrate. Based on these data, the advanced technology combined fermentation of agricultural biowaste. This will provide baseline data for the development of new structural and technological schemes of biogas plants that will improve the efficiency of processing animal waste due to the intensification of the process of bioconversion.