The existing drills and working bodies to separate seed and fertilizer do not fully ensure the implementation of agro-technical requirements for the zone of Northern Kazakhstan. Therefore, the creation of stubble sowing and fertilizers with a separate seed and fertilizer is a major challenge. The novelty of the proposed seeder is that the implementation of the separate seed and fertilizer at planting is done at the expense of modernization and seed boxes are sealed parts. The formulation and fertilizers stubble seeder with a separate seed and fertilizer put the scheme tested in different soil-climatic zones of the CIS-planters cultivators type ESS, namely SZTS 2.0 while performing presowing loosening the soil, seeding, and ferti-lizers introduction and after sowing compacting.
Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources
Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 1
Table of Contents
The program and methods of field research combine harvester equipped with a system of low-frequency electromagnetic radiation grain material; specification for the design of combine radiators with the system in different locations in the course of promoting the grain of the material from the hopper to the ISU.
Rice harvesting became recently a problem due to shortage of labor and, consequently, the increase of wages in Turkey. The aim of the study was the determination of relationship of combine harvester age and the grain losses during on paddy harvest. This study was conducted at the paddy production field planted with Karacadağ variety in Çınar District of Diyarbakır Province in 2013. The New Holland Combines which has same brand but different ages in series of 2002 model TC 56, 2006 model TC 56, 2007 model TC 56 and 2013 model TC 5070 were used in the field experiments. The header losses, which include shatter losses and cutter bar losses, threshing and separation losses, and cleaning losses were measured in the study. The total of these losses was evaluated as combine loss. According to the results, the harvest loss due to combine changed between 6.67% to 9.23%. The lowest harvesting loss was obtained in 2013 model TC 5070 combine series. This was followed by 2002 model TC 56 with 7.32% loss. This results show that the harvesting loss was not directly depended on combine age, it was affected by the factors such as combine adjustment and maintenance, operator skill, product yield, field conditions.
The development and implementation of repair and servicing work during the period when the equipment with regular use is in a state of readiness for use is one of the areas to ensure a high level of reliability of the machines.
A mathematical model is developed to optimize the frequency of prophylactic effects of complex systems with periodic use of the type of self- propelled harvesting equipment in agriculture. The influence of the main parameters of the model on the optimal frequency of preventive effects and are edified y numerical values for combine harvesters’ series "SK-5" and "Don 1500".
Irrigated agriculture has brought mechanization applications and thus has increased cotton production area, yield and production quantity in Southeastern part of Turkey. This increase has led to the development of ginning industry in the region. Also it has become important to standardization the cotton ginning and baling. In this study, were investigated and evaluated current situation of the ginning factories in Diyarbakir province. The study was conducted by applying the survey methods to the visited factories. In the survey, respondents were asked questions regarding general information about the factory, current situation, capacity, raw material procurement, marketing, sales and general problems. In study, 50 factories were investigated, which were registered to Diyarbakir Chamber of Trade and Industry. The results obtained from the study show that the 17 factories have closed for several reasons. In particular, it was found that ginning factories do not operate efficiently with regard to the labour force employed and the amount of capital invested. In addition, it was determined what processed and baled cotton sold out of the province of Diyarbakir. Also, it was determined that factories had difficulties working low capacity, were between 60-120 days of annual working time, lack of qualified employee, financial difficulties, couldn’t find quality cotton, insufficient agricultural supports and unstable pricing policies.
A model of a machine operation with account for systematically important factors has been proposed. It is dealt with practical methods for quality assessment of agricultural machinery and its technological processes.
The obtained results afford evaluation of the Forage Shredder technological reliability during its operation as component of a flow line.
At a choice of an optimum way of machining of soil each land owner pursues one main aim – creation an optimum arable layer for cultivation of crops. Cultivation of soil finds the display in three systems: moldboard tillage, moldboardless tillage and no-till. The ad- vantages and shortcomings are inherent in each system. The right choice will provide preservation and improvement of physical and chemi- cal properties and increase of fertility of soil, and it is one of the most important problems in the production of agricultural crops. The pur- pose of researches is improvement of quality of mechanical cultivation of soil, decrease in power expenses as a result of use of the boardless- subsoiler implement which can carry out at the same time two operations: loosening of surface layer of soil and decompaction of its lower layer. Scientists of university developed and patented soil-cultivating working body which carries out the moldboardless tillage of upper layer with a simultaneous decompaction of the lower layer by means of subsoiler. The offered boardless-subsoiler implement by loosening the top layer of soil and decompaction of the lower horizon, allows to keep crop residues on a surface of a tilled field and to loosen the lower layers of soil, providing the necessary water-air regime. Mechanical cultivation of the soil this boardless-subsoiler implement respond to criteria of quality of soil cultivation. Extent of crushing of the soil is lie in limits of necessary value, the sizes of structural units of the soil is 8-10mm. Forming of a necessary equilibrium condition of the soil on a depth of cultivation supports good germination of a root system and to increase in productivity of the grown-up cultures. Such processing most meets the agrotechnical requirements at growing crops such as sunflower, corn, sugar beet. The offered way of soil cultivation provides fuel savings of up to 10 kg per hectare due to reduction of number of operations. The energy intensity of technology process decreases to 50% due to reduction of number of technology operations for the prepa- ration of the soil.
LABORATORY AND FIELD EQUIPMENT WORKINGOUT AND THE RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF PRE- HARVESTING SUGAR BEET FIELD CONDITIONSpg(s) 3-5
Described in the scientific literature the results of experimental studies and performance test of the technological process of sugar beet harvesting conducted in recent years have shown that modern sugar-beet harvesters manufactured in Europe and America work with significant losses of sugar-bearing plant materials. These losses are due to generally poor topping quality of sugar beet on a root. Therefore, nowadays the search of technical solutions enabling to avoid these losses is of great to importance as it increases the yield of sugar-bearing plant materials per hectare of crops. The purpose of research is to reduce the losses of sugar-bearing plant materials in the course of separation process of sugar beet tops from heads of root crops on a root. While conducting research the methods of field experimental research on the measurement of physical parameters of the technological process were used, as well as methods of statistical processing of the measurement results with the use of computer. New experimental equipment was designed for the field experimental studies being equipped with modern electronic equipment with data transfer to a PC. As a result of the experimental investigation of the distribution heads heights above the ground of sugar beet roots confirmation has been received hypothesis that it does not deny the law of the normal distribution. The results of the multiple measurements enabled set limits of changes in their statistical characteristics, which are as follows: average statistical deviation σ = 20 … 30 mm, the expectation m = 40 … 60 mm. A new design of the laboratory equipment and results of the experimental studies, conducted on it, have given every reason to design and develop a new system of automatic adjustment of the height of cut tops, which can be used in designs of modern sugar-beet harvesting machines.
Developed structure and proposed qualifications of the properties and performance of the quality and reliability of machinates.
Ssuggested new classification of numerical and functional characteristics of indicators of quality and reliability of production.
The main issues considered in this topic are: Regional sistems for monitoring and analysis of agricultural indusrty; The structure of databases and perspectives of technological developmen marketing sistem „Agromonitor“.
This paper presents results of shoot culture of in vitro microtuberisation of potato. Were researched induction of callus and roots of shoot explants on seed varieties of potatoes like: Dido and Marabel and mercantile varieties of potatoes like: Agria BE and Agria SR.
During this research the initial explants – sprouts, further are transfer (passeges) to new nutrirent medium, fresh, with new hormonal composition. These explants transferred to the new fresh medium are called shoots.
An analytical study is related to giving proof and selection of the optimal parameters for the units, consisting of a tractor and a tractor-driven sugar beet harvesting machine. A mathematical model is built on the basis of this study and describes the conditions for effective attachment and give opportunity for determination of the working speed and productivity. The calculations allow finding the optimal parameters of the mentioned above aggregates in relation to productivity and energy consumption.
In order to improve the technological process of potato harvester during operation in hard soil-climatic condition, vibratory digger shovel was created and mounted on exiting potato harvester produced by Grimme (RL 1700), Further laboratory and field experiments. Theoretically established mutual dependence between technology and design parameters of the vibratory digger shovel of potato harvester. Optimization of the parameters have been occurred by processing of the influencing factors using the theory of Similarity and dimensions.