Nowadays topper machines which cut beet tops without copying root heads via rotary topper and only after this heads are cuts individually by passive knife widely used in the world. However, with using this topping method significantly increases sugar-bearing plant material losses. Taking into account that sugar beet tops is effective raw material for receiving biogas, its collecting without loss is actual beet industry problem. However, when cutting tops from sugar beet heads with individual copying and collecting tops from each root crop head the topper productivity is significantly reduced, the design of the topping device becomes complicated, operational expenses considerably increase. Methods of mathematical modeling, programming and calculations on PC are used in the course of research. As a result of the conducted research the mathematical model of a cut without individual copying of root crop heads as well as algorithm are developed. This algorithm enables to determine the rational height of installation of the cutting device over the level of soil surface that in this turn provides minimum losses of beet tops. Dependence of sugar-bearing plant material losses and residues of beet tops on cut height without individual copying of root crops heads was experimentally defined. Comparison with theoretical calculations showed that in the range of working heights of a cut of 20-60 mm deviation does not exceed 1%.
Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources
Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 2
Table of Contents
Inclined camera rice combine harvester provides a more even distribution of the weight of rice transported along its perimeter with a preliminary allocation of free seeds of rice hypophyseal fruitful mass. Achieved by reducing the load on the threshing-separating device combine by reducing the thickness of the applied layer of the rice and ensuring a more uniform supply rice hypophyseal mass combine thresher.
RESEARCH ON THE IMPACT OF EXTENDING THE USE OF THE MACHINES ON THE COST OF SPARE COMPONENTS TO MAINTAIN THEIR EMPLOYABILITYpg(s) 17-18
The degree of extending the service life of the machines is crucial in planning the amount of inventory of spare components to maintain their employability. The paper is displays the analytical dependence for taking into account the impact of extending the service life of the machines over the cost of spare components needed to maintain their employability.
This paper examines the influence of pre-repair resource, between- the -repair resource and coefficient of variation of the resource of spare elements over their quantity that is necessary to maintain the efficiency of the machines when increasing their service life.
THE EFFECT OF TILLAGE AND PLANT DENSITY ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOYBEAN [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] GROWN UNDER MAIN AND DOUBLE-CROPPING SOYBEAN (Glycine max L. Merr.)pg(s) 19-23
The aim of this study was to compare tillage methods and plant density on yield and yield components of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown under main and double cropping systems. The field experiments were carried out at the experimental area of Agricultural Faculty, Dicle University during 2013 and 2014. The experiments were conducted as split-split plot design based on randomized complete blocks with two sowing dates (normal and late) as the main plot, three tillage methods (no-tillage, reduced and conventional) as sub-plot, and three between row spacing (35, 55 and 70 cm) sub-sub plot factor. The experiments were performed in three replications and soybean cultivar Nova (MG III) was used. The combined analysis of the data showed that yield means of reduced tillage (2015.4 kg/ha) and conventional tillage (2036.1 kg ha-1 ) were significantly different (P>0.01) compared with no-tillage (1881.1 kg/ha). Significant interaction was observed.
among experimental factors. The highest value was obtained at early sowing x conventional tillage x 70×5 cm as of 2206.1 kg ha-1
A significant part of the electrical energy used for the heating and cooling, produced from fossil based sources. The decrease of fossil based fuels and the price rises forced people turn to other energy sources. Renewable energy sources are shown as a good alternative to fossil energy sources cause of the environmental its potential. Compared to solar energy become prominent by having easy operation and lower installation costs, as one of the alternative energy sources compared with other renewable energy. Solar energy mostly used for heat water and environment. Cause of the lower solar radiation when much-needed period of habitat heating, solar power cannot be used as efficient for heating. In the summer, while the most intense and prolonged period of solar radiation there is no need for heating, instead an arising need for space cooling. In the summer, using solar power for cooling could be a significant saving method. Especially in the sun-rich regions it is possible to take advantage of solar energy for climatization plant and animal production facilities.
In this study, it is aimed to explain using solar cooling systems in agricultural applications and solar cooling technologies.
The aim of the paper was to propose conception of the navigation system for the autonomous robot for sowing and wide row planting. Autonomous work of the robot in range of traction and agronomic processes will be implemented on the basis of data from a many sensors (cameras, sensors position, sensors distance, and others). Positive test results will allow for the use of the robot in organic crops requiring mechanical removal of weeds or in crops with application of selective liquid agrochemicals limited to the minimum The use of a vision system, based on the map coordinates of the position of the sown seeds , will allow for their care on an early stage of plant development. Main sensor system is based on a specialized GPS receiver providing position information with an accuracy of less than 100 mm. This system will be used to: control speed of the robot, guidance and maintenance robot on the designated path, precision seeding – the exact information on where sowing the seeds will be used to build maps of seeds, which will be used as supporting information for precision weeding, and to control the position of and operation of key components. The front camera view will be used to increase positioning accuracy of the robot. It will allow corrections of the robot path regarding the rows of plants. The vision system will also be used for detection of non-moving objects. Additionally information from the acceleration sensors and encoders built-in wheels will be used in navigation purposes. To determine the angular acceleration the IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) will be required. During the preliminary phase of the project Authors are planning to test possibility of usage of several low cost sensors for collision avoidance system (moving objects detection).
The article presents guidelines, developed concepts and the construction of specialized technology tracked vehicle for the transport of biomass on wetlands, implemented within the framework of the development project No. PBS2/B8/11/2013 “Autonomous transport technology of the harvested biomass on protected wetlands" bound removal of unwanted vegetation from protected areas especially national parks, landscape parks and Natura 2000. The design of the new vehicle has been developed by a consortium led by the team of Power Engineering and Dynamics of Agricultural Engineering, BE-PIMR in Poznan. Its task is to find a solution that would significantly increase the efficiency of the process of obtaining biomass, taking into account the autonomy of action of the resulting structure. This technology will be one of the important links of the system built for the maintenance and improvement of biodiversity in protected areas.
Theoretical analysis has been undertaken to determine the effect of the plough’s structural layout on the total length of the tractor- implement unit’s turning path. Basing on the results of the analysis, the utility of employing a reversible plough instead of a conventional one has been assessed. Eventually, it has been found that, when ploughing a 68.2 m wide land with an area of 8.2 hectares, the total length of the path of travel on the headlands is 1980 m for the reversible plough unit and 2035 m for the conventional plough unit, which is an increase by 2.7%. At an average manoeuvring speed of 1.75 m/s (6.3 km/h), the total amount of time spent for turning by a unit with conventional ploughing tools will be greater by mere 0.5 min. If the ploughed land is magnified by almost 1.5 times (12.0 hectares instead of 8.2), the width of the field will reach 100 m. In this case, the ploughing unit with a conventional plough will travel an 850 m longer path on the headlands. At the above-mentioned average headland manoeuvring speed of 1.75 m/s the increase of time spent by this type of tilling unit for turning will amount to just 8 min. The only advantage of the reversible plough over the conventional one is the opportunity to avoid the appearance of crown ridges and dead furrows when tilling the field. Meanwhile, it is to be noted that with a sufficient qualification of the machine operator the said advantage of the newer tilling implements can be levelled down. Considering the equal productivity of the compared tilling units, a negligible difference between their rates of non-productive expenditure of working time as well as taking into account the infrequent performance of ploughing, i.e. once in several years, in view of the considerably (several times) higher cost of a reversible plough, the acquisition of the latter presents an economically inadvisable option.
The contribution was to develop methods for irrigation management using knowledge in the field of precision agriculture. In the monitoring points were established basic hydrolimits: Field capacity (FC) and wilting point (WP). Irrigation rate ranged from 0 to 40 mm for a specific term assessment of soil moisture. Throughout the growing season used to be applied precisely five irrigation benefits. A high savings were observed between conventional and precise irrigation (water, energy and economic savings). The results show that it is a fully effective system of precision agriculture, although the procurement and introduction of new technology and the software requires first expending a considerable financial cost. Higher demands are placed on the skill and education services.
APPLYING SWOT ANALYSIS IN ASSESSING THE CAPACITY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN CONDITIONS OF DROUGHT AND CHANGING CLIMATEpg(s) 44-47
Soil and water resources, used for the needs of farming production are strategically important on a regional, national and global scale. One of these resources – soils, has an extremely long recovery period, hence it is assumed practically unrecoverable. The second resource – water, has the property of not being wasted in nature; in fact, it only changes its physical state, and is purified if in movement. At the same time, due to considerably short-sighted human activity, a process of aeration sets over already fertile arable land, precipitation changes location, as well as intensity.
Analysing strengths and weaknesses of applying technological processes in farming, especially in the conditions of prolonged droughts and changing climate, will be crucial to making the right decisions, concerning the development of farming production technologies. But mere analyses, no matter how detailed and accurate they are, will be useless without the next step-planning.
Therefore, applying SWOT analysis as a tool can help the awareness of guidelines and failures during the strategic planning for the usage of these irreplaceable natural resources.
In the last decade in Republic of Macedonia and the Balkan region, the import and use of modern agricultural machines and equipment has been intensive.
Some makes and models are manufactured by well known brands ,there is also imports of generic construction via a fast manufacturing process.
The trend of developing and perfecting of both is a complex process, and it is rare to find an exclusive distributor. Usually the dealerships do not pay attention to servicing and overhaul or instructions on proper handling during usage.
Because of the wide selection of brands that have been imported, the issues with servicing and overhaul are not resolved on state or regional level which causes problems, delays and expenses during the life span of the machines.
Until now there has not been a strategy made for overhaul centers.
Based on a search of experimental and theoretical assumptions we offer direct sowing with the following configuration options for openers:
– Option 1 installation disk and chisel openers in two rows: one of them is chisel, and in another – disc, ensuring high throughput and low tractive resistance at work after cereal raw backgrounds;
– Option 2 – installation disc and tines with distribution of seeds for sowing a wide belt (belt drill seeding), providing high throughput, low driving resistance and high yields.