The article examines the current state and investment of supplying the agriculture with the main types of agricultural machinery. The availability and capacity of combine harvesters and tractors of all brands at agricultural enterprises and households has been analyzed. The issues of agricultural machinery renovation, including the expense of imports, are considered. In order to justify the most effective external funding the investments in agricultural machinery, a comparative analysis of financial leasing conditions and bank lending for purchasing a new tractor and a combine harvester. The prospects for further research have identified the justification for the rational composition and structure of the material and technical basis for the intensification of agriculture in the region.
Mechanization in Agriculture
Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 1
Table of Contents
MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE
Promising energy technology means for controlled traffic farming are wide span tractor (vehicles). The effectiveness of the practical use of wide span tractor (vehicles) depends on a sound scientific base or theoretical frameworks, concerning the study of their technological properties. The article presents the theoretical basis of the dynamics of plane-parallel movement wide span tractor (vehicles) in the horizontal and vertical plane as well as its cornering. Developed the theory of plane-parallel movement wide span tractor (vehicle) allows for the justification of new schemes, design parameters and operating modes with acceptable controllability and stability of motion in the horizontal plane. Ride wide span tractor (vehicles), as a dynamical system, moving through the traces of permanent tramlines significantly depends on the characteristics of the irregularities of the longitudinal profile. The desired character of the internal structure of the longitudinal profile laid tramlines is almost possible to obtain the appropriate technology for its formation. Quality testing of dynamic system input perturbations, which are irregularities of the longitudinal profile permanent tramlines and the unevenness of the traction resistance of the soil, depends on the scheme and the constructive and other settings wide span tractor (vehicles). A significant impact on the smoothness of the latter renders the rigidity of the tire support wheels, the magnitude of which can be influenced, within certain limits, by changing the air pressure in them. Improve driving dynamics the technological part of the wide span tractor (vehicles) is observed by increasing the rigidity of the tire its supporting wheels and operating mass. The offered new scheme of the turn of a wide span tractor (vehicle) for controlled traffic farming on the turning strip by turning the undercarriage, using the steerable wheels from its one board around the turning centre arranged in the centre of the space between the wheels from the other board, allows shifting of the tractor, simultaneously with the turn, to the next operating position with better kinematic parameters. In addition to it, the improvement of the turnability characteristics is achieved at such a design embodiment of the wide span tractor (vehicle) when the relation of its wheelbase to the width of the wheeltrack is as small as possible.
Reveals the scientific and methodological principles of determining the needs of farmers in the technical means to perform mechanized processes of agriculture. The parameters of technological systems in different technologies in crop production and the volume of work that match agricultural requirements the quality and timeliness of work.
Strips tillage machine with simultaneous fertilizing in the depth of processing is examined. The experiments were carried out by standard methods known as the theory of the experiment, at the same time is determined and the optimization task with which to establish the optimum setting of the machine. The results obtained show that the machine corresponds to all requirements, the best results are achieved at a speed of 9,0km / h and a depth of 0,25m.
The power consumption of a flow fruit detacher and classic thresher with equal nominal throughput at sesame threshing has been determined. The results show that the total power consumed by the detacher is 4.81 times smaller than by the conventional thresher. This result is due to inertial threshing which does not require destruction of capsules and deformation of stems for detaching of seeds.
Researchs of the influence of the soil particles were perfomed on the powder loamy soil to powder clay texture. Standard and welded ploughshares were tested. The standard ploughshares are made of steel 50Mn7. The welded ploughshares are made by applying C-Cr-Co-Ni-Si additional material on the steel 50Mn7. The ploughshares are tested on the plough roller machine. Researches were perfomed in periods of 120, 240 and 360 hours of ploughing, or 60, 120 and 180 work hours of each ploughshare. After 180 hours of work at least average reduction of the ploughshares lenght was at welded ploughshares and it amounted to 8,27 % of the initial length. At the same time reduced the average length of the top of the ploughshares with standard ploughshares amounted to 19,65 % of the initial length. It was concluded that the application of welded ploughshares can contribute to increased of the productivity.
In theoretical study of most of agricultural machines working bodies there is a need of the modeling of material particles (material points) motion on their working surfaces. Questions of such modeling in cases when the specified surfaces are give to material points movement with difficult trajectories are especially difficult. Objective of this research is to develop the basic provisions of complex movement theory of material point. When carrying out research methods of modeling theory, theoretical mechanics, higher mathematics, in particular differential geometry, methods of drawing up programs and numerical calculations on the personal computer are used. As a result of the conducted theoretical research the complex movement of material point which relative movement happens in a moving trihedron of curve which is defined by the natural equations is considered. The figurative movement of a trihedron is defined by differential characteristics of curve. Competency of use of Frenet formulas for finding absolute speed and point acceleration in projections on unit vectors of the moving trihedron is proved. As a result of numerical calculations on the personal computer there were found absolute trajectories of material point movement and qualitative assessment of received results was carried out.
The article presents the chisel plow of the new generation developed on the basis of the systematic approach and adaptability of technological impacts from soil-climatic and agro landscape conditions. The principle of the use of the alternating movement of working elements for the destruction of the layer in the so-called lines of the least connections was built into the basis of the chisel plow construction. The chisel plow is multipurpose: it performs the present technological process of soil processing of fields on different depth and spaces between rows of perennial plants on the depth which is differentially changed distancing from the bole due to the architectonics of the root system disposition. Working elements of the chisel plow contain the fastened clutches on hinges, the angle of the mounting is determined by the action of soil resistance forces but the destruction of the layer is executed by differently directed deformations. Researches showed that the chisel plow qualitatively fulfills the present technological process and corresponds to agro-technical demands. The amount of agronomically valuable aggregates increases in the arable layer under the processing of soil by the chisel plow. The chisel plow is fairly aggregated with the Т-150K according to energetic indexes. The decrease in traction resistance (by 12.27%) and specific energy consumption (1.14%) when using the working elements with self-centered clutches have been observed. There was set the reasonability of the application of the type without clutches at the deeper tillage, and it is necessary to use the chisel plow with self-centered clutches under the soil treatment on small and medium depth. To treat soil in arid conditions there was developed the construction of the combined chisel plow presenting the combination of the chisel plow with a roller. The comparative analysis of technological process indexes testifies increasing the quality under function of the chisel plow with a roller and unimportant increase of power inputs in normal ranges. According to the acceptance tests on the South-Caucasian MIS chisel plow is recommended to the application in agricultural production.
CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES
SCIENTIFIC-PRACTICAL PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT RURAL AREAS AGRARIAN SECTOR AS ECOSYSTEM KNOWLEDGE ECONOMYpg(s) 37-40
In the article the essence and content of the concept "rural areas". Investigated the current state and problems of development of rural areas, identifies the main factors: economic, social and environmental that prevent their development, and the prospects of their development.
EXPERT APPROACH IN ANALYZING THE NECESSITY OF IMPROVING THE PLANT GROWING TECHNIQUES IN DRYING UP AND WATER SCARCITY CONDITIONSpg(s) 41-47
Производството на земеделска продукция в условията на засушаване и воден дефицит е съпроводено с използване на недостатъчно пълна и достоверна информация. При това възникват задачи, които не са добре структурирани, имат много изходни връзки и практически не се поддават на алгоритмизация. производство на земеделска продукция изисква притежаване на комплексни знания и умения, съобразяване с редица условия на околната среда и пазарната конюнктура. Поради тези причини, обосноваването на необходимостта от усъвършенстване на технологичните процеси от технологична гледна точка е важна стъпка в посока утвърждаване на иновативни решения. Съставена е експертна група, която да оцени ефективността от приложение на усъвършенствани технологични процеси при отглеждане на окопни култури.