Technological innovations and radical products that drive the whole world forward can sometimes have an impact on different areas than planned. The drones ‘ positive impact on innovative agriculture has yet to be manifested in the stages of land and seed preparation. Advanced drone technology enables realistic 3D maps to be created, leading to soil analysis and seed development. Drones successfully manage the seed planting process in the soil. Furthermore, thanks to advanced imaging techniques and special thermal sensors, which part of the field needs water and where nutrients need to be supplemented easily can be determined.
Mechanization in Agriculture
Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 2
Table of Contents
MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF OPERATION INDICATORS OF BEET TOPS HARVESTING MACHINE FOR SUGAR BEET TOPS CONTINUOUS CUTTINGpg(s) 39-41
Field experimental studies of a new beet tops harvesting machine, which is front mounted on a wheeled tractor aggregating tractor, are carried out, carrying out a continuous non-sensing cut of the green massif of sugar beet tops. At the same time, a new laboratory-field installation was developed, which consists of a rotor type front mounted rotary type machine with a horizontal axis of rotation, a transverse screw for collecting the cutted leaves from all width, and a loading mechanism in the form of a paddlewheel and a loading nozzle. During the field experiments, the tractor moving with a specified speed regime fixed by track measuring wheel, the total cutting height was set in a predetermined interval by means of two pneumatic sensing wheels with adjustment mechanisms. The rotational speed of the rotary cutter, with arched knives mounted on the drive horizontal drum, was varied with the help of replacement asterisks. In the prepared area of sugar beet field, the beet tops was cut at various parameters of the harvesting process, which was then estimated by the size of the remaining tops remnants left on root crops heads and in the aisles. According to the developed program and methodology, statistical processing of the results of experimental studies with the help of a personal computer was subsequently carried out, which allowed obtaining graphical dependencies of the indicated tops residues on the root crops heads, which made it possible to establish performance of new harvesting machine for continuous cutting of sugar beet tops. The established dependencies made it possible to choose rational constructive and technological parameters for harvesting tops by front mounted harvesting machine.
INVESTIGATION OF THE GRAIN SEPARATION PROCESS IN THE THREE-DRUM THRESHING-SEPARATING DEVICE OF A COMBINE HARVESTERpg(s) 42-45
The purpose is improving the efficiency of the technological process of threshing and separating the grain pile in a multidrum threshing-separating device due to the substantiation of the technological modes of the work of threshing drums. The influence of technological parameters of the three-drum threshing-separating device of a grain-harvesting combine on the process of grain separation has been studied experimentally. Models of the grain separation process are obtained depending on the speed of rotation of the drums and the supply of technological material for threshing, based on the results of the experimental research. modeling the process of grain separation depending on the speed of rotation of the drums and the supply of technological material for threshing allows to determine the quantity and quality of the mass that each of the three drums separately threshed.
The article is devoted to the problem of drying seeds without their thermal injury by applying vacuum technology. In this paper work presents experimental studies of vacuum drying of seeds of grain crops on the example of maize seeds, during which the safe drying regimes were studied, in which the most intense water separation occurs. It has been found that by heating the batch of seeds to 30° C and subsequent evacuation to a pressure of 4 kPa with bubbling under atmospheric pressure is most intense dehumidification at a rate of 0.259%/min.
There are described the types of tea bush pruning and working bodies of the pruning devices in the article. Due to the biological condition and agro-technical requirements of the tea bushes, there are carried out five different types of pruning action in the tea plantations. Therefore it is necessary to discuss a different design pruning machines. The variability of the parameters of the cross-section of tea bushes on slope is analyzed, depending on the angle of slope inclination. Also the free line width , as well as the cross-section characteristic parameters of the tea bushes – , ℎ are established.
Different types of surface formation of tea bush are characterized, including flat and semi-cylindrical forms. Their comparative analysis has been conducted. In order to increase their durability and simplifying of the construction of tea pruning and harvesting machines it is recommended to form a flat surface of tea bushes. Accordingly, It is recommended to reconstruct the existing semi-cylindrical shaped tea plantations with flat formation of the bushes surface.
ON THE POSSIBILITY OF USING PHYSICAL FIELDS FROM ACOUSTIC CAVITATION IN LIQUID ENVIRONMENTS IN THE PROCESSING OF SEEDS BY DRY TECHNOLOGYpg(s) 52-55
Acoustic cavitation technologies are a highly effective means of processing liquid media, as well as various materials in liquid media. They significantly accelerate known processes in liquids and, in addition, make possible the implementation of previously impossible processes. The phenomenon of cavitation has and another quality – the creation around itself of physical fields (including magnetic fields) with high stresses. This circumstance makes it possible to produce some types of work on “dry” technology, for example, to awaken and process seeds before planting. Placing the seeds from the outside of the vortex cavitator causes the magnetic field to be sparing effect on them. Seat placement inside the workspace predetermines a hard impact, so therefore in a real device through the centers of cavitation they move through the tube-seminal duct. The thickness of the walls determines the degree of influence of the physical fields on them.
CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES
Granular materials are a collection of distinct macroscopic particles. Consequently soils, which are used for agricultural purposes are a part of them. In comparison with other simulation models, creating a numerical simulation with the discrete element method (DEM) for different soils prove to be difficult. The reason for this is that there are an enormous number of particles. Therefore it is not possible to reproduce every one of them. On this account, parcels are used in the numerical simulation. These are larger and also have different physical properties. However, also for the modelling of parcels characteristic variables are necessary. This variable should be determined by using the capillary effect.
The paper researches the influence of two tillage systems – conventional tillage and strip tillage on soil nutrients content, soil acidity and microbiological activity over a reseаrch period of four year – from 2014 to 2017 included. The test are carried out on the same fields in Northeastern Bulgaria. Soil nutrient testing can help determine the necessary amount of fertilizers to be used on a specific field.
USING THE SPRAY OF MACRO- AND MICRONUTRIENTS OF FERTILIZERS TO INCREASE THE PRODUCTIVITY OF POTATO TUBERS (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.)pg(s) 64-67
The experiment carried out on the field in 2015-2017 in the conditions of south-eastern Poland (The Experimental Station, Uhnin in Province Lublin) (51°34 ‘, 23°02’E), on the fawn soil, slightly acidic. The study to determine the effects of foliar fertilizers used in the form of spraying on the productivity of the tubers potatoes. In the research hypothesis, it was assumed that macro- and microelements contained in foliar fertilizers will affect the intensity of process of photosynthesis and transpiration in the field conditions, which in consequence may affect the yield of potato tubers. The experiment was performed in randomized subblocks, in triplicate. In the study was evaluated the effect of the spray of macro- and micronutrient fertilizers on the productivity of potato cultivars Jelly and Satina. Were tested four fertilization variants: three technologies foliar fertilization and standard object, without foliar fertilization. Technologies foliar fertilization had had a significant effect on the Total yield of tubers, the commercial yield of tubers, the yield of seed potato tubers. The technology of foliar fertilization using: Basfoliar Extra 36, per 400 dm water on 1 hectare had significantly increased of the total yield of tubers, the commercial yield of tubers, and yield of seed potato tubers. In the case of cultivars, Satina had a significant increase in share and yield of total yield, commercial yield and yield of seed potato tubers over than Jelly cultivar.
To determine the effect of magnetically treated seeds on the productivity of tomatoes and onion in the area of the Sofia field experimental experiments were carried out with variants with magnetically treated seeds and variants without magnetic treatment of the seeds. Irrigation has been dripped in optimum irrigation mode. The yields obtained with the processed tomato seeds in tomatoes are up to 22% higher than those of untreated and onion onions to 28%, respectively.