• BUSINESS

    JUSTIFICATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO RATIONAL USE OF STRAW AND PLANT RESIDUES

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 3 (2018), Issue 4, pg(s) 165-168

    In the paper, the current situation in the production of crop growing by-products in Ukraine is examined. The potential output of crop growing by-products in various regions of Ukraine, part of which could be allocated for energy production, is determined. The fuel properties of the main types of biomass are presented. The state-of-the-art approaches to the use of straw and plant residues in agriculture are analysed. The possible ways of utilising straw and plant residues in crop growing for maintaining and regenerating the fertility of soils, in livestock husbandry as bedding and a supplement to coarse fodders and in heat power industry as an energy source for the production of thermal power are established. The state-of-the-art technologies and machinery for the rational use of straw and plant residues are described. The need for additional research into what plant residues and what quantities of them can be reasonably used for the fertilisation of soils, taking into account the saturation of the crop rotation systems with cereal crops, the limitation of the phytopathogenic load on grain varieties, the development of weeds, the management of the soil’s nitrogen status under different soil and climate conditions.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF INTERACTION OF THE FLEXIBLE CLEANING BLADE WITH ROOT CROP HEAD

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 4, pg(s) 140-142

    Modern technologies of harvesting sugar beet tops provide solid preliminary cutting and collecting its harvest at the increased altitude and subsequent additional root crops heads cleaning from tops residues on a root. This last operation also defines quality of root crops of beet before their digging up. Objective of this research is improvement quality of root crops heads cleaning from tops remains, by development of interaction theory of flexible cleaning blade with a spherical surface of root crop head. In the theoretical study were used methods of modeling, higher mathematics and theoretical mechanics, as well as programming and carrying out numerical calculations on the PC. As a result of the conducted theoretical research the interaction theory of flexible cleaning blade with a root crop head surface in the course of its cleaning from tops remains is developed. On the basis of the received differential equations of blade movement which is pivotally mounted on the drive shaft with a horizontal axis of rotation, new mathematical dependences which justify basic parameters of this technology process are given.

  • THEORETICAL SUBSTANTIATION OF TOPPING PARAMETERS WITHOUT SUGAR BEET HEAD COPYING

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 2, pg(s) 10-12

    Nowadays topper machines which cut beet tops without copying root heads via rotary topper and only after this heads are cuts individually by passive knife widely used in the world. However, with using this topping method significantly increases sugar-bearing plant material losses. Taking into account that sugar beet tops is effective raw material for receiving biogas, its collecting without loss is actual beet industry problem. However, when cutting tops from sugar beet heads with individual copying and collecting tops from each root crop head the topper productivity is significantly reduced, the design of the topping device becomes complicated, operational expenses considerably increase. Methods of mathematical modeling, programming and calculations on PC are used in the course of research. As a result of the conducted research the mathematical model of a cut without individual copying of root crop heads as well as algorithm are developed. This algorithm enables to determine the rational height of installation of the cutting device over the level of soil surface that in this turn provides minimum losses of beet tops. Dependence of sugar-bearing plant material losses and residues of beet tops on cut height without individual copying of root crops heads was experimentally defined. Comparison with theoretical calculations showed that in the range of working heights of a cut of 20-60 mm deviation does not exceed 1%.