• MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF BEET TOP REMOVING MECHANISMS AND MACHINES

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 3, pg(s) 78-82

    There are considered contemporary trends in the improvement of the technological process for the preparation of sugar beet roots for digging out and directions of the development of the designs of the working tools for the removal of the tops. Analysis of contemporary machines has been carried out according to the indicators of their quality, energy consumption and efficiency of the technological process. Tasks have been determined for creating new working tools. It is noted that at the current stage of development of the beet top removing machines the efficiency and quality problems of the top separation process are solved by increasing the number of operations, which is an energy-consuming, material-intensive and costly way to improve the technological process and the working tools. And, as a consequence, it is necessary to look for technical solutions, technologically allowing operations required only for the preparation of the root crops to be harvested. Therefore, further research should be conducted in the direction of creating a working tool that combines good tracing of the heads by cleaners with low-energy intensity of the cutting tools.

  • VEHICLE ENGINES. APPLICATION OF FUELS TYPES. EFFICIENCY

    SUBSTANTIATION OF PRODUCTION BIODIESEL AND ORGANIC BIOFUELS

    Trans Motauto World, Vol. 2 (2017), Issue 3, pg(s) 135-139

    There are in the article systematically finding out scientific-methodological and organizational-economical foundations of the development of biofuel market, forming of energy crops market, which used as plant origin bioraw material and economical estimation of their usage in the area of agro-industrial complex. World trends of development of biofuel from plant origin bioraw material were generalized, theoretical- methodological bases of forming biofuel market and its social-economic meaning in development of agro-industrial complex and economy integrally, other problems of organization of producing of bioenergy crops and competitiveness of biofuel market were examined. Prospects of development of biofuel were economically substantiated. The main problems, which restricting biofuel market are the absence of the accurate strategy of development.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A DESIGN OF A NEW HAULM TOPPING MACHINE

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 5, pg(s) 180-182

    Theoretical investigations have been conducted of the technological process of a sugar beet haulm topping machine with a rotary cutter mechanism, as a result of which there is developed a refined mathematical model of interaction of the cutting blade with a bundle of leaves, the blade being pivotally fixed on the horizontal drive shaft of the arcuate cutting blade. Basic analytical dependencies have been obtained, application of which in designing and constructing of a haulm topping machine will ensure guaranteed quality removal of the bundles of leaves without extracting the sugar beet roots from the soil. The numerical calculations of the obtained analytical expressions performed on the PC, using a prearranged program, made it possible to determine the design parameters of the rotary haulm topping apparatus.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    FIELD EXPERIMETAL RESEACH OF THE COMBINED FERTILIZING-SEEDING MACHINE-TRACTOR AGGREGATE

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 5, pg(s) 174-179

    The scientific problem of this study is the justification of the expediency of combining the technological operations of sowing cereals and applying the main and starting doses of mineral fertilizers when using a combined machine and tractor unit (aggregate). During the research there were used methods of conducting field experiments using standard equipment. During the planned experiments there were used correlation methods and methods of numerical calculations on a PC. The comparative studies of the quality of barley sowing with basic and modernized fertilizer-sowing units showed the following values of qualitative indicators. So, the coefficient of seed depth variation of the base unit was – 8.2%, and the combined (modernized) unit – 4.7%; The uniformity of seed distribution along the length of the line for the basic unit is – 63.8%, for the modernized unit – 84.9%; Field germination of seeds when sowing the basic unit is 80.4%, modernized – 87.4%. Thus, when using the combined fertilizer-seeding unit, the uniformity of seed distribution along the length of the string will be substantially increased. At the same time, the field germination of seeds will increase, and the coefficient of variation in the depth of seed placement in the furrow will decrease. Based on the results of field experimental studies, an increase in the yield of spring wheat and barley was found in the application of a combined fertilizer-seed aggregate with the simultaneous introduction of a basic fertilizer-seeded fertilizer into the soil and sowing of cereals with the application of a starting dose of mineral fertilizer in comparison with the known schemes of such operations. The obtained results confirm the expediency of combining these technological operations with one pass of the combined machine-tractor unit (aggregate).

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    THEORETICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DESIGN OF BEET TOPS HARVESTING MACHINERY

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 4, pg(s) 137-139

    Beet tops harvesting machines designs working out is actual scientific and technical task for beet industry. Development of beet tops harvesting machine with technical and operational indicators of work on the level of the best world analogs is research objective. In the research used the methods of design and construction of agricultural machinery, methods of creation calculation mathematical models based on higher mathematics, theoretical mechanics, as well as programming and numerical calculations on the PC. Theoretical researches of technological process sugar beet tops cutting by the rotor mechanism are conducted. The mathematical model of interaction beet tops bunch with arc-shaped blade of knife which pivotally mounted on a power horizontal shaft is constructed. New analytical dependence of full cutting beet tops bunch of a given diameter on constructive, kinematic and power parameters of this design of beet tops harvesting machines is obtained. The dependence for speed definition of beet tops cutting device which providing effective cutting of tops bunches from sugar beet root crops which are in the soil is found. Carried out on the PC, numerical calculations, made it possible to determine the design parameters of the new rotary beet tops harvesting device. Tests of the beet tops harvesting machine in different zones of sugar beet cultivation showed that technical and operational indicators of its work correspond to the level of the best world analogs.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    THEORETICAL RESEARCH OF CLEANER PRESSURE ON SUGAR BEET ROOT CROP

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 2, pg(s) 57-59

    Technology incompatibility in the sugar beet harvesting process is established. Beet tops removing by follower cutoff with the subsequent root crop heads cleaning is possible at speed no more than 1.5 m·s-1 whereas beet pullers operate at speeds of 1.2… 1.5 times are higher. At a cutting without copier of sugar beet tops a working speed makes more than 1.5 m·s-1, however losses of sugar-bearing plant material exceed agrotechnical requirements twice because of unreasonable height of a cut relative to soil surface. The differential equation of bow-shaped copier movement on a root crop head of sugar beet which is the main equation of functioning root crops heads cleaner is worked out. Components of the differential equation are defined and dependence of normal reaction on design parameters of root crop head cleaner is received. Conditions not of knocking-out of root crops are received and rational values of design parameters and operating modes of root crop head cleaner are proved.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF COMPLEX MOVEMENT

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 1, pg(s) 3-10

    In theoretical study of most of agricultural machines working bodies there is a need of the modeling of material particles (material points) motion on their working surfaces. Questions of such modeling in cases when the specified surfaces are give to material points movement with difficult trajectories are especially difficult. Objective of this research is to develop the basic provisions of complex movement theory of material point. When carrying out research methods of modeling theory, theoretical mechanics, higher mathematics, in particular differential geometry, methods of drawing up programs and numerical calculations on the personal computer are used. As a result of the conducted theoretical research the complex movement of material point which relative movement happens in a moving trihedron of curve which is defined by the natural equations is considered. The figurative movement of a trihedron is defined by differential characteristics of curve. Competency of use of Frenet formulas for finding absolute speed and point acceleration in projections on unit vectors of the moving trihedron is proved. As a result of numerical calculations on the personal computer there were found absolute trajectories of material point movement and qualitative assessment of received results was carried out.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    THEORY OF TWO-DISC ANCHOR OPENER OF GRAIN DRILL

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 5, pg(s) 6-8

    High seeding quality of grain crops under modern technologies causes increase of requirements to seeders opener. We developed a new design of the combined two-disk anchor opener which can qualitatively carry out their functions under modern technologies, in particular no-till. Research purpose is development of the functioning theory of the created new furrow-opener design which integrates in itself constructive elements of two-disk openers and anchor type openers and can works on roughly prepared soil with plant residues and provides the stable seeds sowing depth at the increased seeding speeds. When carrying out researches methods of mathematics, theoretical mechanics, modeling, researches results statistical analysis, drawing up programs for calculations on PC are used. Parameters of the combined two-disk opener with the advanced mechanism of sowing depth regulation are substantiated. On the basis of the scheme of a opener design it is proved need of using certain rigidity spring for stability seeding to a predetermined depth within the agrotechnology limit.

    Dependences for calculation of rational spring elasticity which take into account geometrical parameters of opener design are obtained. The pilot studies conducted in field conditions confirm advantages of new constructive decisions of this combined opener. It is established that the seeder with the combined two-disk anchor openers steadily puts seeds on a compacted seed bed that excludes inertial seeds ejection beyond the agrotechnology limits, including at the increased seeding speeds.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF CUTTING FORCE OF THE SUGAR BEET TOPS FROM ROOT CROP HEAD

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 4, pg(s) 3-5

    Beet tops harvesting is a complex task of the sugar beet growing industry which forms the qualitative indicators of root crops during their further digging out from the soil and determines the loss of tops and sugar-bearing mass. In the development of theoretical foundations of the optimal tops cutting from heads of sugar beet root by different types of topping working bodies should take into account forces which act at the same time and the rational cutting height. Theoretical researches having been carried out hitherto concerned only the detailed analytical description of the functioning of the new designs of topping working bodies and practically did not concern the general provisions of the separation tops from the head of root crop. The aim of this study is the theoretical determination of the forces that occur at the contact point of cutting working body of topper machines with root crops head of sugar beet root crop. When carrying out theoretical studies are used the methods of mathematics, theoretical mechanics, strength of materials, methods of programming and numerical calculations on PC. As a result, of the theoretical research new analytical dependencies of force describing the processes of crumpling and subsequently cutting of sugar beet heads by topping working body, depending on the size and shape of root crops heads and design parameters of topper have been obtained. As a result, of numerical calculations on PC critical level value of penetration of the cutting element of topping working body into root crops head of sugar beet and maximum value of cutting force at which ejection of root vegetables from the soil doesn’t take place, was defined. The obtained theoretical dependencies and values of normal reaction and cutting forces are the basis for the further working out of a mathematical model of dynamic interaction system of cutting working bodies with the heads of sugar beet.

  • NEW APPROACH TO THE CHOICE OF WAY OF MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF SOIL IN THE SOUTH OF UKRAINE

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 1, pg(s) 29-31

    At a choice of an optimum way of machining of soil each land owner pursues one main aim – creation an optimum arable layer for cultivation of crops. Cultivation of soil finds the display in three systems: moldboard tillage, moldboardless tillage and no-till. The ad- vantages and shortcomings are inherent in each system. The right choice will provide preservation and improvement of physical and chemi- cal properties and increase of fertility of soil, and it is one of the most important problems in the production of agricultural crops. The pur- pose of researches is improvement of quality of mechanical cultivation of soil, decrease in power expenses as a result of use of the boardless- subsoiler implement which can carry out at the same time two operations: loosening of surface layer of soil and decompaction of its lower layer. Scientists of university developed and patented soil-cultivating working body which carries out the moldboardless tillage of upper layer with a simultaneous decompaction of the lower layer by means of subsoiler. The offered boardless-subsoiler implement by loosening the top layer of soil and decompaction of the lower horizon, allows to keep crop residues on a surface of a tilled field and to loosen the lower layers of soil, providing the necessary water-air regime. Mechanical cultivation of the soil this boardless-subsoiler implement respond to criteria of quality of soil cultivation. Extent of crushing of the soil is lie in limits of necessary value, the sizes of structural units of the soil is 8-10mm. Forming of a necessary equilibrium condition of the soil on a depth of cultivation supports good germination of a root system and to increase in productivity of the grown-up cultures. Such processing most meets the agrotechnical requirements at growing crops such as sunflower, corn, sugar beet. The offered way of soil cultivation provides fuel savings of up to 10 kg per hectare due to reduction of number of operations. The energy intensity of technology process decreases to 50% due to reduction of number of technology operations for the prepa- ration of the soil.