• BUSINESS

    EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND BIOPHYSICAL COEFFICIENTS OF RASPBERRIES GROWN IN DRIP IRRIGATION

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 3 (2018), Issue 2, pg(s) 78-81

    In order to establish the aggregate and average daily values of raspberry evapotranspiration in an experimental site in the village of Chelopechene – Sofia, drip irrigation studies were carried out on a replanting variety "Liulin" under different irrigation regimes – from full satisfaction of the daily needs of the culture from water to irrigation with 20% and 40% irrigation norms. The meteorological conditions during the study period showed an influence on the sum of the sum and day-to-day values of the culture evapotranspiration.

    On average, during the research period, the total evapotranspiration rate for the raspberry vegetation period is 4730 m3 / ha, with the main part being formed by the irrigation rate – 60% and by rainfall – 40%

    For the needs of practice and design, the ten-day values of the biophysical coefficients Z and Kp were calculated over a five-year period.

  • BUSINESS

    EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGIES ON THE YIELD OF HYBRID SUNFLOWER VARIETIES

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 3 (2018), Issue 1, pg(s) 22-30

    A Polish experience with 10 hybrids of sunflower field was made on the Chelopechene Field, Sofia, on cinnamon forest soil. Sunflower hybrids are grown under non-irrigating conditions and under irrigation conditions with drip irrigation and microwaving.

    The meteorological conditions during the study period determined the number of irrigations and the size of the irrigation and irrigation norms of the culture.

    It has been found that the yields obtained under irrigation conditions are higher than 13 to 46%, with drip irrigation giving better results than sprinkling.

    The Maritsa, San Luka and A58xC23 hybrids have been shown to be suitable for growing in non-irrigated conditions, while the hybrids "Vokil", "Michaela" and "Maritsa" hybrids are irrigated.

  • BUSINESS

    IRRIGATION WATER PRODUCTIVITY FOR RASPBERRIES GROWN IN DRIP IRRIGATION CONDITIONS

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 3 (2018), Issue 1, pg(s) 31-34

    To determine the irrigation water productivity for raspberries during their cultivation in the soil-meteorological conditions of the area of the village of Chelopechene – Sofia, studies have been carried out with drip irrigation of a plantation with the variety "Lyulin". Various regimes have been studied – from full satisfaction of the daily needs of the culture to water, to irrigation with 20% and 40% reduction in irrigation regulations.

    The meteorological conditions during the study period determined the number of irrigations and the size of the irrigation and irrigation norms of the culture.

    On average, over the survey period, the highest yields were obtained with the watered with 100% irrigation norm option. The increase in yields resulting from the irrigation is about three times the non-irrigated option in surface drip irrigation.

    The highest irrigation water productivity of 4.3 kg of raspberries per cubic meter of water is obtained in variants irrigated with a 40% reduced irrigation rate.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    DETERMINATION OF THE LIQUIDITY VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY EQUIPMENT

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 6, pg(s) 239-241

    The structure of production in agriculture is changing with the change of priorities, both at EU and national level. On the one hand, this is due to interconnection in individual sub-branches, on the other, to the replacement of traditional technologies with new ones. In both cases, this requires the maintenance of more equipment than is necessary for production and the corresponding increase in the cost of production and the reduction of the profit from production. Significant lagging of the machine-tractor fleet renewal processes and increased loading of the used equipment imply intensive physical wear and obsolescence.

    Depending on the reasons for write-off, when determining the liquidation value of the machinery, account shall be taken of special features and the possibilities for further use of individual elements (parts, assemblies and aggregates). Several approaches are used to determine the liquidation value:

    – the whole machine is considered scrap. The approach is applicable to working machines and attachments to self-propelled agricultural machinery;

    – the whole machine is classified as scrap but is dismantled and divided according to the type of scrap (ferrous and non-ferrous metals). The approach is applicable to retractors and attachments to self-propelled agricultural machinery as well as stationary machinery for primary production processing;

    – the machine is rated as scrap of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and second-hand spare parts. The approach is only applicable to physically worn machines.

    In addition to that, an improved methodology for assessing the liquidation value of different groups of agricultural machinery for moral and physical extinction with and without residual resource elements is suggested.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    MECHANISED TECHNOLOGY FOR GROWING AND HARVESTING CORN

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 6, pg(s) 228-231

    Improvement of applied modern mechanized technologies for growing and harvesting of corn, introduction of hybrids with a low and strong stem, suitable for thicker sowing, irrigation, etc. Lead to an increase in average grain yield per hectare.

    The best precursors for corn are bean cultures, peas, alfalfa etc. Keeping this crop rotation turns out to be appropriate for successful weed control. Permanent cultivation of corn is also perceived, but it should not last for more than three consecutive years on the same area. In addition, corn is also eligible for cultivation in the case of reduced soil cultivation, incl. And through direct sowing. Obviously, with these extensive opportunities for crop rotation, account should be taken of the period of natural soil compaction and of the type of soil. Production and protection is carried out by two technologies: harvesting of cobs and harvesting of grain.

    The main advantages of the first technology are the following: harvesting can be done at higher grain humidity (about 30%) when the stems are still green and can be ensiled; No additional energy costs are required to dry the grain; Timely release of sowing areas for subsequent crops.

    When grain maize is harvested, the development of the maturity phase and the decrease of grain moisture should be observed, as the maturity increases considerably in the harvest losses. With the prolongation of the maize harvest, the biological losses are particularly high mainly due to fallen cobs, which reach up to 25%.

    With the maturity phase of corn growing, the productivity of combine harvesters’ increases, but taking into account the increase in losses, the optimal harvesting time for corn should be done on an economic basis.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    CLASSIFICATION OF INDICATORS FOR COMPLEX ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 6, pg(s) 221-224

    The efficiency of the machines depends on the completeness of the scope of the indicators and the factors with which they are linked.

    In choosing the best solutions, it is necessary to evaluate the system metrics, and the optimal option machine or set of machines to be chosen using optimization criteria.

    The indicators for the quality assessment of mechanized works should be divided into common types for all mechanized works and for separate groups of technological processes: soil treatment, sowing and planting, plant care, harvesting of crops.

    The system of indicators for the evaluation of agricultural machinery is expressed and evaluated with a large number of properties, indicators and characteristics of quality and reliability.

    In general, quality has four groups of properties: feasibility, social, bio-ecological and reliability.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    MODERN APPROACHES TO QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 4, pg(s) 132-134

    The report analyzes the place and role of the problem of quality and reliability of production /agricultural machinery/ under the conditions of the market economy is the basis of marketing and business. In a market economy the main driving forces of the business are: marketing, quality and reliability of production and services.

    It turns out that we need to change our way of thinking and action. We must get used to the idea that the marketing approach and innovative solutions challenge the consumer to produce and service high quality and reliability.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    CURRENT PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION MECHANIZATION

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 3, pg(s) 111-114

    The report focuses on the current problems of mechanization of agricultural production, and agrarian science is seen as a subsystem of the national economy and as a continuously evolving system, characterizing the objectives of its functioning, composition and structure of its elements, as well as the way of interaction and interconnection Between its elements. From a system point of view, mechanized technologies in agricultural production, based on agricultural mechanics, are inseparable from the processes of their organization and management.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    METHODS OF CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL PROCESSES

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 3, pg(s) 106-110

    In the report the methods for controlling and managing the processes in agriculture are justified and systematized and a methodology for applying the statistical methods for analysis, control and management of the quality of the agricultural processes has been developed. Finally, the factors influencing the quality of technological processes in agriculture are also labeled.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    DETERMINING THE LEVEL OF RELIABILITY OF SELF-PROPELLED AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY USING THE METHOD OF INSTANTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS

    Mechanization in Agriculture, Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 6, pg(s) 5-7

    To solve the tasks related to the operational management of the technical condition of self-propelled agricultural equipment the method of momentary observations to quickly assess the level of reliability of self-propelled agricultural equipment was improved.
    A comparative study of the reliability of the self-propelled agricultural machinery / harvesters / classic method and the method of current observation, and it has been found that the accuracy of the results obtained by the method of current observation satisfy the requirements for practical usage.