This paper considers the process electron beam welding in vacuum of stainless steel 1H18NT. Neural network based models are developed and used for the description of the defectiveness, depending on the process parameters – electron beam power, welding velocity, the distance between the main surface of the magnetic lens of the electron gun and the beam focusing plane and the distance between the main surface of the magnetic lens of the electron gun and the sample surface. Neural network (NN) models, based on a multi-layered feedforward neural network, trained with Levenberg-Marquardt error backpropagation algorithm are compared with NN models, based on Pattern recording neural network, trained with Conjugate Gradient Algorithm. The neural networks are trained, verified and tested using a set of experimental data. The obtained models are implemented to predict areas of process parameters, where the appearance of defects is most probable and the location of welding regimes that should be avoided.