Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 8 (2014), Issue 8, pg(s) 3-4

    The carburation process in modern diesel engines practically begins with the moment of fuel injection in into the cylinder, and ends at the same time as the combustion process. The improvement and development of the carburation process depend on the injection parameters, particularly on: the motion of charge in the combustion chamber; fuel properties; combustion chamber sizes; a surface temperature; interdependent motion of charge and fuel. With a view to carburation in diesel engines, we obtain a nonhomogeneous mixture in diesel engines. First of all, the internal carburation process cannot ensure uniform distribution of the injected fuel’s steam and air. Besides, the improvement of carburation process is impeded by fact that as a result of the combustion process development there occur the fuel injection and carburation that increases that amount of fuel, which is burnt in the expansion line. All this causes increasing thermal heat losses and growing amount of toxic substances in exhaust emissions. Also, the improvement and efficiency largely depends on the length of self-ignition impeding period that directly defines the engine’s dynamic magnification factor. The paper dwells also on the possibilities of partial eradication of negative phenomena and increasing the engine’s efficiency, as well as reducing toxicity. In the engine’s intake system, the electric injector is inserted, by means of which, at the beginning of the intake process, there is carried out the injection of a certain amount of fuel in front of the inlet valve, and together with the air coming into the cylinder it creates the mixture, which occurs during the filling and compression process, and at the end of the compression process, the main amount of fuel is atomized by means of basic injector.

    By the end of the compression process, until the fuel is atomized from the basic injector, we have the depleted, but almost homogenous mixture, and therefore, this mixture is uniformly distributed in the combustion chamber. At the same time, the primary oxides, to a certain extent, are created for starting combustion. Immediately after the fuel atomizing from the basic injector, we will obtain the mixture required for combustion, and the combustion process begins earlier than during the process of the creation of a standard mixture, and this means that the length of self-ignition impeding period reduces, and consequently the efficiency goes up, and the amount of soot in exhaust emissions is reduced.