The paper presents graphic method for design surface of lamellas of plough with lamellar moldboard.
Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources
Vol. 61 (2015), Issue 4
Table of Contents
This article discusses the functioning of miniagrotechniques in particular motoagregates. It is noted that the operator of motoagregates performs much more features and physical work than using a conventional tractor. It was established that the main causes of the physical participation of the operator in the motoagregagate is the destabilizing factors that alter the trajectory of the movement, pulling the load due to changes in coupling properties of propulsion with the ground and the other reasons. The operator is forced to perform the functions of stabilizing the effect of destabilizing factors. A structural model based on the concept motoagregagates electrically controlled system the engine is running and adaptive systems, allowing full automation of work motoagregates.
DEPENDENCE OF THE RESISTANCE TO THE MOVEMENT OF TRACTOR UNITS ON THE VARIABLE WEIGHT AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY.pg(s) 10-12
Increasing power ratio tractors and technology in crop production has led to mass growth outpaced of the technological part of the MTA regarding the growth of the mass of the tractor, making it impossible for him to use as a tractor and calls for new destinations using the power of its engine. . Note that the movement resistance force change unit arising from variable properties of the processed material and heterogeneity of the properties of the working machine and their adjustment. To evaluate the effectiveness of such technical systems, including moving objects and processes, effectively using the method of state variables based on the notion of state. Possible direction to address this issue is the use of control systems, which can adjust the regulating effect on the tractor unit considering the gains of the tractor unit for speed and weight, and automatically change modes of operation. It is also necessary to develop criteria for the selection of this mode in the field.
A comparison has been made of four technologies for mechanized sesame harvesting in conditions of Bulgaria. The first is one- stage harvesting with grain harvester. The second is two- stages whole-plant harvesting. The third is two- stages harvesting where the first stage is collecting the sesame capsules and the second – threshing the capsules after draying. The last technology is one – stage seeds harvest- ing while the plants are "on roots". The first technology has been recommended for large and flat fields. The third technology has been the most suitable for production of seeds. The forth technology is suitable for small-size fields. For such conditions has been elaborated a prototype which harvests sesame at a humidity which is twice times higher than the optimal for grain harvester and at several times less consumption of energy.
After mechanized whole-plant threshing of sesame a mixture of seeds, seed-cases and stems is obtained. The separation of the seeds is done by means of a unit, consisting of a sieve and a fan with combined movement and adjustment of the air flow rate and the slope of the sieve cradle. The results of the testing of the separation unit with different crop shows the possibility to obtain sesame seed purity 94 … 97%.
The existing sowing systems (SS) of machines for application of fertilizers not fully provide quality of introduction of mineral fertilizers. Unevenness and instability of application of fertilizers reach 20-40% at demanded to 15%. It, first of all, is connected with hygro-scopicity of fertilizers and imperfection of SS. For ensuring necessary quality of distribution of mineral fertilizers across the field at their intra soil differentiated introduction SS, equipped with glow coil of original design. is offered. Pins of the coil are executed in the form of the tetrahedral truncated pyramids located on crossing right and left of screw lines on a coil surface. Flow rate of SS was regulated with the help of the executive mechanism with the linear actuator and a reducer modified for work with the block of control and management accord-ing to the prescription map. Researches were conducted on purpose: estimating of operability of new SS, with the new drive for change of frequency of rotation of the coil; establishments of functional dependences between flow rate of SS, i.e. ability to provide its necessary range of change of doses at the differentiated introduction of fertilizers; estimates of quality of work of experimental SS for the differentiated intro-duction of mineral fertilizers. Researches were carried out as in laboratory, and field conditions. Functional dependence of flow rate of SS on number of turns of coils is received. It is established also that flow rate of SS directly depends on percent of opening of the actuator and frequency of rotation of the sowing coil. It is established that at SS with the three experimental coil devices – unevenness of seeding between devices makes 4.5%. Instability of seeding doesn’t exceed 3%. The maximum values of unevenness of seeding between 3 sowing devices and instability of seeding between replications are received when opening of the actuator was 40%, and frequency of rotation – 22 rpm, which nevertheless, also meet requirements for the sowing systems.
We offer decentralized unpowered water lifting, using devices that are installed below a water source, such as a spring. The most promising of the water lifting devices of impulse type is a hydraulic ram. If the hydraulic ram is equipped with a suction tube, it is possible to increase the height difference between the source and the lowest point to the most possible value. If the hydraulic ram is equipped with a torque converter it allows: 1) to adapt optimal operating mode of a hydraulic ram to particular geodesic conditions; 2) to create in advance large-scale hydraulic rams and torque converters and to unitize them for each urgent order 3) in the second circuit, i.e. in the torque converter, any medium may be used as the working fluid: water, oil, coolant, air and so on., that helps produce energy and then transform it into useful function at maximum efficiency (≈ 90%) due to the minimal number of the energy conversion forms.