The necessity to accurately place the necessary quantity of nutrients relative to the root system of plants requires an intra-soil layer wise application of site-specific fertilizer doses to different depths. To ensure the full nutrition of plants throughout the growing season, a new technology for intrasoil site-specific three-layer application of mineral fertilizers and a cultivator-fertilizer for its implementation are proposed. The traction force of its working body is determined.
Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources
Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 4
Table of Contents
MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE
The report analyzes the place and role of the problem of quality and reliability of production /agricultural machinery/ under the conditions of the market economy is the basis of marketing and business. In a market economy the main driving forces of the business are: marketing, quality and reliability of production and services.
It turns out that we need to change our way of thinking and action. We must get used to the idea that the marketing approach and innovative solutions challenge the consumer to produce and service high quality and reliability.
We have developed direct seeding seeders based on the AGTS-2,0 stubble drill with the following coulter combinations :
– Disc and chisel openers installed in at least two rows, in one of the rows there are chisels, and in the other – disk, which provide high throughput and low traction resistance when working on stubble untreated backgrounds;
– Disc and cultivator claws with seed spreaders for sowing with a wide belt (band-sowing seed), providing high throughput, low traction resistance and increasing yield.
This paper presents the results of the laboratory and field tests.
Beet tops harvesting machines designs working out is actual scientific and technical task for beet industry. Development of beet tops harvesting machine with technical and operational indicators of work on the level of the best world analogs is research objective. In the research used the methods of design and construction of agricultural machinery, methods of creation calculation mathematical models based on higher mathematics, theoretical mechanics, as well as programming and numerical calculations on the PC. Theoretical researches of technological process sugar beet tops cutting by the rotor mechanism are conducted. The mathematical model of interaction beet tops bunch with arc-shaped blade of knife which pivotally mounted on a power horizontal shaft is constructed. New analytical dependence of full cutting beet tops bunch of a given diameter on constructive, kinematic and power parameters of this design of beet tops harvesting machines is obtained. The dependence for speed definition of beet tops cutting device which providing effective cutting of tops bunches from sugar beet root crops which are in the soil is found. Carried out on the PC, numerical calculations, made it possible to determine the design parameters of the new rotary beet tops harvesting device. Tests of the beet tops harvesting machine in different zones of sugar beet cultivation showed that technical and operational indicators of its work correspond to the level of the best world analogs.
Modern technologies of harvesting sugar beet tops provide solid preliminary cutting and collecting its harvest at the increased altitude and subsequent additional root crops heads cleaning from tops residues on a root. This last operation also defines quality of root crops of beet before their digging up. Objective of this research is improvement quality of root crops heads cleaning from tops remains, by development of interaction theory of flexible cleaning blade with a spherical surface of root crop head. In the theoretical study were used methods of modeling, higher mathematics and theoretical mechanics, as well as programming and carrying out numerical calculations on the PC. As a result of the conducted theoretical research the interaction theory of flexible cleaning blade with a root crop head surface in the course of its cleaning from tops remains is developed. On the basis of the received differential equations of blade movement which is pivotally mounted on the drive shaft with a horizontal axis of rotation, new mathematical dependences which justify basic parameters of this technology process are given.
The development of effective medication-free treatment and means of animal injuries treatment is urgent task. The optimal parameters of electromagnetic field of ultra-high frequency range interacting with the bone tissues of animals have been determined. The aim of the work is to identify the high-frequency range of the electromagnetic field parameters in interaction with animal tissues using the developed mathematical model. The dependence of electric component amplitude of magnetic frequency field was investigated. It has been proved that the dimensions of the limbs and internal tissues significantly affect the internal distribution of the electromagnetic fields. The results of experimental studies have made it possible to determine the optimal frequency, power and radiation source arrangement for the injury treatment of different animal species. The application of electromagnetic radiation with optimal parameters intensifies metabolism on the diseased cells membrane level and assists more rapid recovery of the injured bone tissue.
A mathematical model of the heat transfer during grain drying has been developed. To estimate qualitative parameters of a technological process, the theory of the tolerance control is used. Control criteria for the drying process in rhomb-shaped aggregates have been determined. The obtained results allow increasing the technological reliability of grain dryers operation.
CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES
The paper analyzes the results of research in the sector of mechanization for the evaluation of efficiency of deposition of dispersed drops of fluid on the treated surface when using conventional hydraulic nozzles and rotating disk atomizers, mesh or perforated drums with the forced deposition of small drops. The necessity of using forced deposition of small droplets when creating new working bodies to the spraying technique on the basis of the rotating disc atomizers, mesh, or perforated.
MEASUREMENT OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM FARM MACHINERY UNDER ACTUAL OPERATING CONDITIONS WITH THE PEMS EQUIPMENT – SELECTED ISSUESpg(s) 151-156
The paper discusses the problem of exhaust emissions from farm machinery. The paper presents selected results of the measurements of exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, PM) from farm machinery under actual operating conditions, during fieldwork. For the tests, the authors used a portable exhaust emissions analyzer (PEMS) for the measurement of gaseous exhaust emissions and for the measurement of the emissions of particulate matter. The analyzers provide an on-line measurement of the concentrations of the exhaust components under actual operating conditions. The tests performed under actual operating conditions provide invaluable information regarding the exhaust emissions. In the paper, the authors analyzed the relations between the engine operating parameters and the exhaust emissions. Despite differences in the methodology, the authors also presented a comparison of the obtained results with the currently applicable exhaust emission limits in order to draw attention to this issue.
Systematic approach and sustainable use of water and energy is the key point for human existence. Irrigation systems are one of the main directions for the development of the economy. Renewable energy sources, especially solar photovoltaic (PV) energy are suitable as input energy for the irrigation systems. By using the original and innovative scientifically sizing method named Critical Period Method, the irrigation systems are sustainable, given the economic, environmental and social indicators. This method includes design elements of the solution by subsystems: Photovoltaic generator + invertor – PV, pump station – PS and water reservoir – WR based on the critical period of operation of each one. Critical Period Method is different from the usual sizing methods because instead of a single critical period, which relates to the maximum daily water consumption, this method considers three critical periods (for subsystems PV, PS, and WR) due to the different balancing days. Each of the critical periods is determined with regards to a certain balance period. Critical day/period for subsystem PV is determined by statistical minimization, with regards to the difference between over pumped and demand quantity of water. For the subsystem, WR critical day/period is the day with maximum water demand and the shortest duration of solar radiation suitable for the operation of the pump station. A critical day/period for the subsystem PS also coincides with this critical day. Pumps use electric energy produced by using solar photovoltaic energy and causing water pumping into the water reservoir, which with its usual hydraulic role of storing water also has the function of energy reservoir. This concept is adaptable and can be implemented in the previously constructed systems, as well as for the new ones. Application of Critical Period Method replaces the installation of long energy supply lines and associated energy losses, and additionally reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Application of Critical Period Method is suitable for rural areas because of locations where classical power network is not available or has limited availability, i.e. remote areas and on islands. In order to prove this innovative method, a practical application is predicted to perform in irrigation of agriculture field in Deçan, Kosovo.
The mulch application on top of soil surface may effect on soil physical conditions by reducing evaporation losses, soil moisture and soil temperature which in turn affect the distribution of soil elements through soil profile. This work presents a study of the effects of mulch on movement and distribution of soil properties including pH, soil salinity and major nutrition plant available N, P and K in organic palm farming by use different irrigation rates. The decreasing in soil pH more pronounced in surface layer compared to subsurface layers. Soil salinity of surface layers were lower than sub surface layers in mulched treatments for both tow time samples, under organic farming system, Soil moisture and mulch were shown to have a strong indirect influence on the amount of available soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The highest value of total nitrogen in the soil was recorded in the presence of mulch with the availability of 100 % of the recommended irrigation, where the conditions are very suitable for the mineralization N process. With respect of available phosphorus and potassium, it has given highest values in the presence of mulch with the availability of moisture up to 70% and 85% of recommended irrigation, respectively.