Sowing quality means required vertical (depth) and horizontal (spatial) spacing of seeds in the soil with minimal damage to the seeds. The spatial distribution of seeds (horizontal spacing) is given by distance between the rows and spacing of the seeds in a row. The objective of the study was the evaluation and comparison of the sowing quality of sowing machine jd maxemerge xp with mechanical filling of ladle holes with holding fingers within usage of seeds with different dimensional and shape attributes in agricultural conditions. Sowing machine jd maxemerge xp reached good results for the quality especially when using the angular seeds. It reached the sowing quality expressed by the standard deviation of 46.95 – 50.76 % when seeds pr 37 n01 and for seeds pr 37 n01 it is 47.43 – 48.73 %. Another evaluative criterion is dual sowing of seeds or plants (drr), it was reached the average value 3.65 – 2.45 % for angular seeds and the average of 1.54 – 3.71 % for approximately spherical seeds.
Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources
Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 1
Table of Contents
MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE
The article gives an overview of the creation of technology and equipment for pneumatic drying and storage of soy without attracting external sources of energy, and as storage capacity, use cheap freight containers, which will reduce the energy costs of the process and the material consumption of equipment.
The work is devoted to the investigation of the peculiarities of aggregation of wide-span tractors (vehicles) with agricultural machines and implements. As a result of the conducted studies, it has been established that, from the point of view of the control impact (the turning angle of the driven wheels) and the disturbing impact (the turning angle of the mounted implement in a horizontal plane) exerted by the wide-span tractor, the most desirable is such a variant of configuration of the mounted device in which the instantaneous centre of rotation, formed by the convergence rays of its lower links, is in the centre of the mass of the tractor. When using wide-span tractors (vehicles) with mounted implements of the high 4N and 4 categories in accordance with the ISO 730: 2009, one should consider a possibility to configure them both for a three-point and a two-point scheme.
The article deals with the milking machine vacuum system which is designed for the vacuum level control with a special reducing valve. Vacuum Milking machines with the vacuum pumps without frequency converter have the constant rotation speed and vacuum level is controlled by the control valve. By using the frequency converter for controlling electric motor of vacuum pump the electric energy consumption significantly decreases but the vacuum fluctuation is higher. The vacuum pump of the designed vacuum system is connected to the air container. The vacuum level of the air container is controlled by the frequency converter on a higher level than the level of the milking vacuum. Newly designed reducing valve is placed between the air container and the vacuum pipeline system of the milking machine. The reducing valve controls the air which flows through it and the vacuum is reduced on the required level and is stabilized. But the energy consumption is a little bit higher.
The system of the servicing of the machines in the livestock farms has been analyzed and the necessity of optimizing the spare parts services and the scope of the workshops for maintaining the equipment in the livestock breeding. Relations have been developed to optimize the area to be serviced by the workshop and its spare parts warehouse, as well as the optimal average distance to be found from where machines work.
CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES
CHALLENGES FACING CONTEMPORARY SEED DRILLS FOR REDUCED TILLAGE, REVIEWING VARIOUS TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSING A METHOD FOR EVALUATING THEIR EFFICIENCYpg(s) 21-24
There are significant benefits to be gained from reduced and no-tillage in connection to soil protection policies but the unique requrements of such practices create the need for seed drills capable of matching these requirements. It is necessary to reach a quantative representation of the effectiveness of different brands of seed drills in order to chose a suitable drill for the task. The seed drill’s efficiency can be judged after the biological and economic risks of its usage have been evaluated. This paper shows a method which uses the technical data of the seed drill and reaches a cumulative grade to evatuate the biological risk and also an existing software which compares and evaluates the economic risk for a chosen seed drill compared to Cross Slot seed drill. Combining the two types of risk evaluation lets us chose the best type of seed drill for seeding in reduced tillage.
The main physical soil properties are considered highly important for soil fertility. Measuring soil moisture, in-depth soil hardness and soil density can help in choosing an appropriate soil tillage method. The paper shows a practical handbook, which can be used with addition to soil moisture meter and a hardness meter to reach these conclusions. The selection of the tillage method is done by using a paper disk, provided in the handbook, showing good tillage practices.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different tillage methods on weeds population in second crop soybean production. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of Agrıcultural Faculty at Dicle University in 2014. The treatment was lay out at the randomized complete blocks design with three times replication. In this study, different six tillage method were applied (one conventional tillage (CT) – four conservation tillage (RT) and direct sowing (NT)). There were observed more density the species of Xanthium strumarium subsp., Solanum nigrum L., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Convolvulus arvensis L. and Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers in experimental area than other weed species. According to results, there were found significant difference between treatments. The lowest values of weeds were recorded in the conventional tillage methods (CT), while the highest values of weeds were noted in RT4 Tillage methods and NT. Therefore, conventional tillage method was beneficial and useful in reducing of weeds population on soybean crop.
Reveals the scientific and methodological principles of definition agro-technical period for harvesting of walnuts depending on intensity fall fruit and the quality nut kernel.
Bulgaria is the EU’s leader in increasing the number of organic producers over the last five years. The types of crops with the largest share in the structure of organic areas of all areas in our country are respectively ¾ of the areas including permanent crops, Technical crops, meadows and pastures. The remaining ¼ occupy grain, vegetable, essential oil and fodder crops. In relative terms, however, the most widespread is the production of leafy vegetables and grazing, and the areas occupied by these crops are almost entirely grown in this way. More than half of the areas with berry crops (except strawberries) are certified as organic or in transition. Areas planted with some perennial plantations and essential oil and healing crops also occupy a larger share. An important requirement for the objectivity of the financial analysis is the reporting of the comparability of the source information for the reporting period with the relevant data from the financial analysis entities. It is imperative to take into account the distortive influence of all the factors in order to achieve correct and sustainable conclusions: agrotechnical; natural and climatic; socio-economic.