In Industrial Institute of Agriculture Engineering (Poznań, Poland), together with the Institute of Vehicle of Warsaw Technical University and firm Promar Poznań action have been taken to design autonomous field robot for sowing and cultivation of crops. Designed robot is to be autonomous device. It will automatically perform the sowing, weeding and selective spraying plant crops such as sugar beet or maize. The robot will work in various terrain and weather conditions. It will move on the dirt roads and on cultivated fields, and therefore it will have to overcome mud, sand, puddles and avoid obstacles such as ruts, bumps in the road and stones. The achievement of this objective required the development of a suitable chassis, system of autonomous control in terms of driving and realization of agronomic processes.
Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources
Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 3
Table of Contents
MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE
The aim of the study was to evaluate the horizontal and vertical force of reversible moldboard plow at various operation depth and speed. A complete randomized block design was used with three replications, the first treatment was tillage depth with three levels 15, 20 25 cm and the second treatment was the forward speed with two levels 3.9, 6.3 km·h-1. The result showed that both forces were increased as increased of tillage depth and speed, however, the operation depth was more effective than speed, on the other hand, the horizontal force was more affected than vertical force by increasing both of depth and speed.
There are considered contemporary trends in the improvement of the technological process for the preparation of sugar beet roots for digging out and directions of the development of the designs of the working tools for the removal of the tops. Analysis of contemporary machines has been carried out according to the indicators of their quality, energy consumption and efficiency of the technological process. Tasks have been determined for creating new working tools. It is noted that at the current stage of development of the beet top removing machines the efficiency and quality problems of the top separation process are solved by increasing the number of operations, which is an energy-consuming, material-intensive and costly way to improve the technological process and the working tools. And, as a consequence, it is necessary to look for technical solutions, technologically allowing operations required only for the preparation of the root crops to be harvested. Therefore, further research should be conducted in the direction of creating a working tool that combines good tracing of the heads by cleaners with low-energy intensity of the cutting tools.
THE JUSTIFICATION FOR COLTER SPREADER CONFICURATION SELECTED FOR BROADCAST SEEDING AND MINERAL FERTILIZER APPLICATIONpg(s) 83-86
The aim of this work the graphical regularities of the fertilizer pellets outflow through a flattened cone have been considered in an effort to justify the configuration of universal colter spreader which would provide even distribution of the grass and grain seeds, and mineral fertilizer pellets within the soil. It has been determined that to achieve the granular materials’ uniform outflow in the direction transverse to travel speed over the colter spreader surface its elliptical cross-section is required. To this effect the section plane should be directed perpendicular to travel speed, cross over all cone generators at an angle between it and central axis of the latter other than П/2.
INFLUENCE OF DISEL COMPOSITE FUEL ON THE BASIS OF RICINIC OIL ON INDICATORS OF THE TRACTOR DIESEL OPERATIONpg(s) 87-90
The relevance of the matter is confirmed by numerous researches of the alternate engine fuel, in particular, from the renewable sources of raw materials (biomass) studied in various regions of the Russian Federation and abroad. For obtaining diesel composite fuel as raw materials are attractive oil crops which are not used in the food industry, for example, carthamus, false flax, colza, winter cress, crambe and castor-oil plant.
At the moment the need for the ricinic oil used in military, chemical, machine-building, radio-electronic, printing, paint and varnish, medical, cosmetic and other industries in the Russian Federation grows. As a result of processing of a castor-oil plant fruits by cold press in residual meal or pod there are about 10% of oil which is possible for allocating by processing of meal on technology of extraction with receiving technical ricinic oil with a possibility of application as raw materials for receiving paint and varnish, lubricants and diesel composite fuel.
However viscosity of ricinic oil is 10 times more, than at diesel gas oil therefore it is necessary to apply in mix with low-viscosity components. As additive to ricinic oil can be used mineral oil fuel and bioethanol due to which mixture viscosity considerably decreases, cloud point and crystallizations temperature decreases. 
As diesel composite fuel is investigated mixture of ricinic oil (RicO), and summer diesel gas oil according to National State Standard 305-2013. On the basis of the carried-out calculation are defined indexes of a working cycle, dependences on concentration of components of blenderized fuel are shown.
On the basis of the calculation, are determined the working cycle indexes, are shown the dependences on the concentration of the components of the composite fuel. Based on the results of the calculation, the obtained indicators were compared with diesel gas oil.
INFLUENCE OF THE TECHNOLOGY OF THE THROUGH STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES ON THE AGROENGINEERS’ READINESS FOR THE PROJECT ACTIVITYpg(s) 91-95
Here is presented the influence of pedagogical technology of the through study of agricultural machines on the formation of readiness for the future activities of future specialists in agroengineering. Here are analyzed the dynamics of development of professional competences from the first year of study, during the study of the discipline «Introduction to the specialty», and further on, educational practice, constructive and theoretical courses of agricultural machines, course design, industrial practices, etc. Here are given the examples of a set of basic text-based tasks in the discipline “Agricultural Machines”, which deal with soil cultivation, the work of a cutting machine, a reel, a system for cleaning a combine harvester, etc. The factors emphasizing the quality of preparation of agroengineering specialists, development of the ability to perform design functions are highlighted. The issue of diagnostics and criteria of general amount of knowledge about the agricultural machines at the final stage of training is covered.
CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES
Cover crops (green manure) brings not only immediate advantages like slowing erosion, suppressing weed growth, improving soil structure, increasing nutrients and water content and hindering some pests but also long term ones like decreasing erоsion, air pollution, investment in mineral fertilizers and herbicides and increasing microbiological activity. The paper gives examples of good practices both for whole and row-crop grains. It also suggest a useful crop rotation for a period of five years.
THE USE OF GEOINFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANTS FOR AGROINDUSTRIAL COMPLEXES IN KAZAKHSTANpg(s) 100-102
It shows the urgency of the task of creating a methodological and program base that supports the adoption of pre-project solutions in the placement and justification of the parameters of prospective small hydro power plants in Kazakhstan. The questions of application of the data of geoinformation systems using SRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM in the making of a digital relief model are considered. Moreover, showed the using this application for preparation of the feasibility study for the construction of small hydro power stations. A brief overview of the used geoinformation systems tools is given. The deviation of proposed methods for making topographic maps was studied using the example of calculating the volume of the reservoir on the Baskan river in the Almaty region.
Renewable energy has been demanding in recent years and work on it has increased, but it does not have the potential to meet the required energy level. Energy can only meet high demand when it is used more efficiently and when correct conversions are made. The correct and economical use of energy can only be achieved by storing energy. There are many problems such as the situations where the resources are present and insufficient, the unbalance of the production consumption and the supply demand balance are prevented by storing energy. There are many ways of storing energy. When we examine these under 4 headings; electrical energy storage, mechanical energy storage, thermal energy storage and chemical energy storage.
EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND BIOPHYSICAL COEFFICIENTS OF LONG-FRUIT CUCUMBERS GROWN IN PLASTIC GREENHOUSES IN DRIP IRRIGATION CONDITIONSpg(s) 108-110
The evapotranspiration of Gergana long-fruit cucumbers was established in four years of field experimentation with drip irrigation, grown in greenhouse conditions on chromic luvisol soil in the Sofia region. Different irrigation regimes have been tested – from full satisfaction of the daily needs of the culture from water to irrigation with 20% and 40% reduced water application rates. The total evapotranspiration values for the study period were determined.
For the needs of practice and design, the ten-day values of the biophysical coefficient Z are calculated, which depends on the biological characteristics of the crop and the weather factors. On the basis of the established relationship between evapotranspiration and evaporation, the values of the coefficient of crop in unheated plastic greenhouses are calculated as the average for the cucumber vegetation curve Ki = 1.46.