Activated carbon obtaining from various raw material / via chemical activation for the purpose of environmental purification – overvew


The activated carbons are among the chemical products widely used in the industry and life. Thanks to their unique combination of adsorption and electric chemical properties related to their strongly developed specific surface, porous texture and chemical nature of the surface, they have not lost their attractiveness and application for more than 150 years. The use of various types of carbon adsorbents for solution discoloration, air deodorization, for medical and cosmetic purposes, has been known for centuries. Their appearance happens to be the natural development of one of the most ancient technologies – for obtaining wooden coals and is based on the increase of
the public consumption.



  1. Deitz, V.R., C.J.Karwacki, Chemisorption of cyano-containing vapors by metal-ligand structures adsorbed by activated carbon, Carbon (1994) Vol.32 No 4 .
  2. Davies, G.M., N.A. Seaton, The effect of the choice of pore model on the characterization on the internal structure size distribution. Carbon Vol. 36 (1998).
  3. Lavanchy, A., F.Stoeckli, Dinamic adsorption, in active carbon beds, of vapor mixtures coressponding to miscible and immiscible liquids, Carbon Vol. 36 (1998).
  4. Choma, J., M. Kloske, "Otrzymywanie i wlasciwosci impregnowanych wegli aktywnych," Ochrona Srodowiska, (1999) vol. 2, no. 17, pp. 3-17,
  5. Кинле, Х., Е. Бадер, „Активные угли и их промышленное применение”, Изд. „Химия”, Ленинград, 1984.
  6. Mattson, J., H. Mark Jr., “Activated Carbon”, Marcel Dekker, NY (1971).
  7. Тончев И., „Изследване върху основните характеристики на енергийно гориво от Чукуровския и Софийския лигнитни басейни”, Хабилитационен труд, София, 1973 г.
  8. Родионов, А., В. Клушин, Н. Торочешников, „Техника защиты окружающей среды” Изд. „Химия”, Москва, 1989.
  9. Величкова Н., Дисертация, БАН, София, 2004.
  10. Manoilova L, A. Chatzis, Iv. Spassova Iv., R. Nickolov ; Concept for the development of a new type carbon catalyst designed for protection against vapours of highly tohic substances, Machines, Technologies, Materials ”, IX, issue 5, Veliko Tarnovo (2015) 27- 29
  11. Manoilova, L., A. Chatzis, D.Vladov, Iv. Spassova , R. Nikolov; Effect of additives in phase composition of carbon catalysts other than ASC Whetlerite type carbons on their removal efficiency against hydrogen cyanide vapors in the air , Science. Business. Society. 5/2016
  12. Николов, Р., Дисертация, ВТНИИ, София, 1988.
  13. Viswanathan B., P. Indra Neeland, T.K. Vatadarajan, Methods of activation and specific applications of carbonmaterials, National Centre for Catalysis Research, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, 2009.
  14. Bansal P. Ch., Donnet J.-B., F. Stoeckli, Active Carbon, Marcell Dekker, N.J., 1988
  15. Плаченов Т.Г., Технология сорбентов. Активированные угли, Ленинград, Госхимиздат, 1941.
  16. Фенелонов В. Б., Пористый углерод, Институт Катализа, СО РАН, Новосибирск, 1995.
  17. Budinova, T., N. Petrov, J. Parra, V. Baloutzov, Use of an activated carbon from antibiotic waste for the removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution, Journal of Environmental Management 88 (2008), 165–172
  18. Vinke, P., M. van der Eijk, M. Verbree, A.F.Voskamp, Modification of the surface of a gas-activated carbon and a chemically activated carbon with nitric acid, hypohlorite, and ammonia, Carbon Vol. 32 No 4 (1993).
  19. Evans, M.J.B., E. Halliop, S. Liang, J.A.F. Mac Donald, The effect chlorination on surface properties of activated carbon, Carbon 36 (1998).
  20. Кельцев Н.В., Основы адсорбционной техники, Москва, Химия, 1976.
  21., "Material Safety Data Sheet: Specifying Respiratory Filter Type" (2013).

Article full text

Download PDF