Maintaining the set sowing rate is important to obtain an accurate number of plants and guarantee good yields. This can be achieved by mechanical systems – variators and gear reducers or by electric drive (mechatronic systems). The object of the present work is the device of a mechatronic system for setting and maintaining the sowing rate when sowing cereals. Dependencies are derived for determining the transfer function in the control mechatronic system. Its principle and structural schemes are presented
Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources
Vol. 67 (2023), Issue 1
Table of Contents
MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE
Examining of Water Distribution Uniformity in Drip Irrigation Systems: A Review of Various Recent Studies Worldwidepg(s) 6-8
This study was aimed to evaluate water application uniformity of emitters for drip irrigation systems. The data was obtained from our previous studies or some researches in the world relevant to watering performance of drippers. In results, reasons of poor watering performance of drip irrigation systems were inadequate design and mainly incorrect management of systems. Following recommendations were proposed for better distribution of water for crops / plants; 1- correct design and management of the systems, 2- applications of physical, chemical, and biological for preventing dripper clogging, 3- timely control of system components particularly emitters, and 4- participation of farmers courses about agricultural water management.
The types of machine reliability tests and the applicability of the test plans are discussed. On this basis, a methodology for experimental testing of the reliability of the machines is proposed and the interrelation of the elements of the methodology is shown.
Rules for aggregating mounted agricultural machines have been systematized. Dependencies are derived for determining the parameters of the tractor after aggregation with the machine and the rules for safe work according to the norms are given.
The necessity of using the apparatus of mathematical statistics to obtain high reliability of the results of the evaluation of thereliability indicators of agricultural machinery in comparative tests is justified.
Two models of plant protection machines have been tested and the main numerical characteristics of the indicator production till failure of the failure-free feature have been obtained.
The application of the Student’s criterion for proving the statistical significance of the difference in the tested reliability indicator is justified.
At the Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection – Sofia (IPAZR – Sofia) an experimental model of a machine for combined soil treatment in permanent plantations has been developed. The machine is designed to work using technology without turning the soil layer and at the same time at a sufficient depth for fruit plantations. Tests were conducted in laboratory and road conditions to verify the capabilities of the structure. Deficiencies have been identified, as a result of which the work must continue.
CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES
Neglected and underutilized crop species a path to improving nutritional security and diversification of agriculturepg(s) 22-26
Korça region is characterised by diverse agro-ecology and it is considered as one of the richest crop genetic resource centres for food and agriculture in Albania, but not all this richness has a continuity on cultivation and usage. Many of these species are well adapted to specific regions, to various environmental stresses and have often developed their unique characteristics, good resistance to abiotic and biotic factors common diseases and pests. They have a high potential for providing food, and nutritional security to support local food system transformation and contribute to the diversity and stability of agro-ecosystems and the diversification of agriculture. As a result, some of them are endangered, and to be lost in the near future. Encourages of their cultivation can provide a promising approach towards ensuring substantial household security and the diversification of agriculture. In his paper are indicated at least 31 crop species that are neglected or underutilized in Korça region, which can be included as future smart foods, and may contribute on diversification of food and cultivated crops.
Soil microbiology is highly linked with the microorganisms and their particular activities regarding the growth of plants and yield while taking a part of the nitrogen cycle which is an important component in the providing of nutrients for the growth of plants. In the case of atmospheric nitrogen fixation, organic matter decomposition and releasing of some bio-chemical enzymes are the important factors regarding the growth of plants and roots. In generally, the microorganisms are categorized into a few of specific groups while considering their biological features and behaviors such as bacteria, viruses, fungus and algae. When considering the main role of microorganisms can do in the soil is the increasing of soil fertility while improving the soil structure, increasing the plant tolerance and providing of a self protection against the diseases of plants. According to the agricultural practices, the great diversity of microorganisms plays a few of important roles in the maintaining of the equilibrium of the soil and plant including the top soil which provides habitations for a large number of microbial communities.
Bees are highly sensitive to noise pollution and in some cases, noise can impact their behaviour. Towards the goal to create optimal living conditions for the bees, we aim to understand how the material of the beehive impacts the microclimate of the beehive. The present paper aims to examine and compare the noise levels inside beehives of the same construction but made out of different materials. Three 10-frame Dadan-Blatt beehives were used in the experiment – a ceramic beehive made out of high-cavity ceramic tiles of marl clay; a ceramic beehive made out of high-cavity ceramic tiles with increased kaolin content and a wooden beehive (pine). The noise was measured in an urbanized area and inside the beehives. The results show that the best performance in terms of noise insulation is the ceramic beehive with increased kaolin content.
This research will analyse the utilization of photovoltaic plant in a fruit storage facility to produce electricity for running the refrigerators to keep cool the fruit preservation in the Storage Facility. The building has two sets of refrigerators with a power of 18.2 kW each. Firstly, the work analysis deals with the convenience of installing a Photovoltaic Plant to produce electricity for supplying the refrigerators. Secondly, implementing energy efficiency measures such as adding a new layer of insulation to the walls has been analysed. Result analysis shows that the return of investment by the installation of Photovoltaic plant is less convenient compared to that of a thermal insulation layer on the interior sites. In conclusion, it has been decided to implement only thermal insulation as energy efficiency measures to this facility where the saving is about 15% of electricity consumption per year. Given that the saving in one year is 3069kWh and the cost of electricity is 0.09 EUR/kWh, the savings in monetary value is 276 EUR /year.