• THEORY OF CALCULATION FOR STRENGTH TRAY PLANTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROPONIC GREEN FODDER

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 3, pg(s) 44-48

    Production of hydroponic green fodder is an important task of agriculture, which in developed countries is given enough attention. Currently, the world’s developed a considerable number of various designs installations for the production of hydroponic products, but the main working body of these installations are trays in which the cultivation of hydroponic green fodder, as one of the most simple, but fairly effective devices for seeding, cultivation and the ready products. Due to the fact that each of the trays used for these purposes is a resilient structure which is under the influence of considerable forces and bending moments, to design it requires fairly accurate preliminary and final strength calculations. The aim of this study is to develop guidelines on the calculation theory of plant trays strength for the production of hydroponic green fodder. The study used modeling techniques, higher mathematics, mechanics of materials and structures, in particular the theory of elasticity of plates and shells, as well as the methods of calculation and programming on a PC.

    The study built a mechanical model and the design of the tray scheme, defined analytical expressions to change the maximum and calculated moments in his dangerous sections and constructed diagrams of bending and torque. Further graphs of changes in the safety margin of the tray frame, depending on the area of seed tube parameters and from which it is made. These charts should be used for the calculation and control of the results. A new theory can be used in calculating the strength of similar containers, which are used in the mechanization of agricultural production

  • THEORETICAL PREMISES FOR ENHANCEMENT OF EFFICIENCY IN THE USE OF REVERSIBLE PLOUGHS

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 2, pg(s) 30-34

    Theoretical analysis has been undertaken to determine the effect of the plough’s structural layout on the total length of the tractor- implement unit’s turning path. Basing on the results of the analysis, the utility of employing a reversible plough instead of a conventional one has been assessed. Eventually, it has been found that, when ploughing a 68.2 m wide land with an area of 8.2 hectares, the total length of the path of travel on the headlands is 1980 m for the reversible plough unit and 2035 m for the conventional plough unit, which is an increase by 2.7%. At an average manoeuvring speed of 1.75 m/s (6.3 km/h), the total amount of time spent for turning by a unit with conventional ploughing tools will be greater by mere 0.5 min. If the ploughed land is magnified by almost 1.5 times (12.0 hectares instead of 8.2), the width of the field will reach 100 m. In this case, the ploughing unit with a conventional plough will travel an 850 m longer path on the headlands. At the above-mentioned average headland manoeuvring speed of 1.75 m/s the increase of time spent by this type of tilling unit for turning will amount to just 8 min. The only advantage of the reversible plough over the conventional one is the opportunity to avoid the appearance of crown ridges and dead furrows when tilling the field. Meanwhile, it is to be noted that with a sufficient qualification of the machine operator the said advantage of the newer tilling implements can be levelled down. Considering the equal productivity of the compared tilling units, a negligible difference between their rates of non-productive expenditure of working time as well as taking into account the infrequent performance of ploughing, i.e. once in several years, in view of the considerably (several times) higher cost of a reversible plough, the acquisition of the latter presents an economically inadvisable option.

  • THEORY FOR ATTACHMENT OF TRACTOR-DRIVEN SUGAR BEET HARVESTING MACHINES

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 1, pg(s) 6-8

    An analytical study is related to giving proof and selection of the optimal parameters for the units, consisting of a tractor and a tractor-driven sugar beet harvesting machine. A mathematical model is built on the basis of this study and describes the conditions for effective attachment and give opportunity for determination of the working speed and productivity. The calculations allow finding the optimal parameters of the mentioned above aggregates in relation to productivity and energy consumption.

  • LABORATORY AND FIELD EQUIPMENT WORKINGOUT AND THE RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF PRE- HARVESTING SUGAR BEET FIELD CONDITIONS

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 1, pg(s) 3-5

    Described in the scientific literature the results of experimental studies and performance test of the technological process of sugar beet harvesting conducted in recent years have shown that modern sugar-beet harvesters manufactured in Europe and America work with significant losses of sugar-bearing plant materials. These losses are due to generally poor topping quality of sugar beet on a root. Therefore, nowadays the search of technical solutions enabling to avoid these losses is of great to importance as it increases the yield of sugar-bearing plant materials per hectare of crops. The purpose of research is to reduce the losses of sugar-bearing plant materials in the course of separation process of sugar beet tops from heads of root crops on a root. While conducting research the methods of field experimental research on the measurement of physical parameters of the technological process were used, as well as methods of statistical processing of the measurement results with the use of computer. New experimental equipment was designed for the field experimental studies being equipped with modern electronic equipment with data transfer to a PC. As a result of the experimental investigation of the distribution heads heights above the ground of sugar beet roots confirmation has been received hypothesis that it does not deny the law of the normal distribution. The results of the multiple measurements enabled set limits of changes in their statistical characteristics, which are as follows: average statistical deviation σ = 20 … 30 mm, the expectation m = 40 … 60 mm. A new design of the laboratory equipment and results of the experimental studies, conducted on it, have given every reason to design and develop a new system of automatic adjustment of the height of cut tops, which can be used in designs of modern sugar-beet harvesting machines.

  • THEORY OF ASYMMETRIC IMPACT INTERACTION BETWEEN VIBRATING DIGGING TOOL AND BODY OF SUGAR BEET ROOT

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 61 (2015), Issue 7, pg(s) 23-25

    One of the most important characteristics of the high performance operation of a state-of-the-art sugar beet harvester is the provision of the conditions that make impossible the damaging of sugar beet roots immediately during their digging out of the ground as well as their loss in the form of broken off tails, which either remain in the ground or get left on the field surface. It is quite obvious that the highest probability of damaging sugar beet roots exists at the instant of their impact interaction with the digging tools, because then the bodies of the roots are tight in the ground. This is to the greatest extent applicable to vibrating digging tools, which can be found on the majority of up-to-date sugar beet harvesters manufactured worldwide, when they operate under the conditions of dryer and harder soil.

    Therefore, we have carried out theoretical research into the process of impact interaction between the body of a sugar beet root fixed tight in the ground and the vibrating digging tool, the results of which provide sufficient grounds for determining the optimal kinematic and design parameters of the vibrating digging tool stipulated by the requirement to eliminate the damage of roots during their digging out of the ground. At first, we developed an equivalent schematic model of the force interaction between a sugar beet root fixed tight in the ground, which was approximated by a regular cone, and two shares of the vibrating digging tool simultaneously oscillating in the vertical longitudinal plane at the preset amplitude and frequency and moving onward. Under these conditions, the body of the sugar beet root made contact at one point with only one share of the digging tool, i.e. they came in asymmetric contact and their impact interaction took place. We introduced the axes of a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system and found the analytical expressions for all forces applied to the sugar beet root at the specified point and also for the force of its bond with the soil. Also, we took into account that an impact momentum was applied at the point of contact at the moment of impact, its value was found analytically, and further we found its projections on the coordinate axes. Then we applied the theorem of variation of the momentum during impact and, following the substitution into it of all found values and transformations, we obtained a new system of equations that characterised the impact interaction process under consideration.
    The obtained system of equations was solved using Cramer’s rule on a PC with the software programme developed for this purpose. As a result, we found the digging share vibration frequency and soil running depth ranges, within which the requirement to eliminate the damage of tail parts of root bodies fixed rather tight in the ground was met. Applying the devised theory it becomes possible to determine the kinematic and design parameters of the vibrating digging tool that ensure observance of the requirement to eliminate the breakage of root bodies during their lifting from the ground, within a wide range of the soil’s mechanical and physical characteristics.

  • ТHEORY OF THE SEQUENTIAL OSCILATIONS OF THE SUGAR BEET ROOT DURING ITS VIBRATING DIGGING FROM THE SOIL

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 61 (2015), Issue 3, pg(s) 10-14

    In order to determine the optimal design and kinematic parameters of vibrational digging harvest technology of the sugar beet roots in relation to the physical and mechanical soil properties it is necessary to develop a new theory of the sequential oscilations of the sugar beet root during its vibrating digging from the soil. Such theory should be based on a deep study of the mechanism of force interaction of digs plough shares vibration working body with the body beet root and its further translational vibrations in the soil, as in an elastic medium.

    In a first stage we have developed an equivalent scheme of the above mentioned harvest technology, there were determined all forces acting on sugar beet root (conic approximation) and surrounding soil (in depth of movement of the digging plough shares and deeper – point of relative gripping), there were given kinematic parameters of the oscillating action on the sugar beet root, and axes were introduced.

    Next there were composed of linear second order differential equations with constant coefficients with the right parts, which describe the free and forced vibrations of beet root and its point of attachment along the axes, together with the surrounding soil root in the first stage extraction.

    Results obtained by using of systems of differential equations obtained on the PC have enabled to formulate the law of motion of beet root in the process of direct extraction from the soil vibration, as well as calculate the frequency and amplitude of free and free accompanying vibrations and amplitudes of forced vibrations root as a rigid body in an elastic medium.

    According to calculations, the centre of mass of root through 0,025 s to implement horizontal translational movement to a distance of 50 mm at a frequency of the disturbing force 10 … 20 Hz vertical and translational movement over a distance of 35 mm, at the same frequency vibrations and soil hardness c1 = 2·105 N/m2.

  • STUDY PLANE-PARALLEL MOTION MOVEMENT COMBINED SEEDING UNIT

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 61 (2015), Issue 2, pg(s) 3-6

    Conducted analytical studies, resulted in the construction of a new mathematical model of plane-parallel motion combined simultaneous sowing unit and bandpass mineral fertilizers. If you use the original equation in the form of Lagrange II-the kind, the system was composed of six differential equations of motion, that describes the behavior of the combined unit with its plane-parallel motion. Defined analytical expressions for the forces, that act on the machine unit, can be solved on the PC.

  • THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION THE CENTRIFUGAL DISSIPATE OF MINERAL FERTILIZER

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 60 (2014), Issue 2, pg(s) 13-15

    There are results the theoretical investigation of centrifugal dissipate the mineral fertilizers. It is made a mathematical model the centrifugal working devise. The unsteady of dissipate is defined at working width. The theoretical conclusion are confirm with experimental results.