• ## DEBYE’S TEMPERATURE AND DIMENSIONAL BORDER BETWEEN MACRO – AND NANO STATES

Debye’s temperature 0D is the temperature border between areas, CМ/V(Т) has constant value and, when T<0D , begins to decrease monotonically. 0D is the crystal parameter, which allows to calculate the dimensional border between macro- and nanostates. The statement which is found in scientific discussions that 0D depends on temperature is incorrect because it contradicts modern crystal-physical theories. The numerical value  D is defined experimentally and is related to the structure of crystals and to the processes taking place in them.

• ## “WEIGHT” OF THE OF RECIPROCAL LATTICE NODE IN THE CELL/ SUPER CELL OF THESE LATTICE

Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 12 (2018), Issue 12, pg(s) 506-509

Geometrically, the reciprocal lattice is built on the basis of the lattice of the crystal according to the rule
*
a j ak jk , where
the vectors
*
a j , ak are the periods of the crystal and reciprocal lattices corresponding  jk  0 at j  k and jk  1 at j  k (j, k = 1,2,3). The “weight” of the reciprocal lattice node, determined by the structural amplitude of the crystallographic plane corresponding to it, should not be zero, since in this case the reciprocal lattice node will be homologous to any point of the reciprocal space outside the lattice. Crystals with Bravais I, F, C – type cells in the reciprocal lattice are characterized by super cells, periods of which are n – times larger than ∗ = −1, where a is the period of the lattice cell. With respect to complex structures, even if they are single-element, the period of the super cell of the reciprocal lattice can exceed ∗ several times. For a diamond crystal ∗ = 4∗under the super cell of the reciprocal lattice it is necessary to use the smallest parallelepiped, the “weight” of all vertex nodes of which is not equal to zero.

• ## ANALYSIS OF THE POINT GROUP OF DIAMOND CRYSTAL

Industry 4.0, Vol. 3 (2018), Issue 6, pg(s) 319-322

The structure of the diamond is usually represented as two face-centered cubic cell with the same dimensions, which are shifted relative to each other by the value of +/-(1/4.1/4.1/4) That is eight different ways. However, in this case, there is a possibility of only two enantiomorphous centers, which have the same ф (hkl ) j . They do not affect on the reciprocal lattice, but allow to explain, for example, the presence of twins. The introduction of the concept of the scattering center of diamond shows that his point group is Fm3m with the full symmetry formula 3L44L3(4L3i)6L29PC, whereas the generally accepted model of the diamond structure does not correspond to such symmetry. For example, the L4 axis is missing, C is not at the origin of coordinates, there is only one L3 axis along the diagonal along which the sublattices are shifted, etc.

• ## ENERGY TECHNOLOGY ACTIVATION COMPONENTS FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS BASED ON POLYMERIC MATRIX

Investigated the mechanisms of interfacial interactions in composite materials based on thermoplastic matrices modified with dispersed particles of silicon and carbon-containing compounds with high energy activity. It was found that the laser treatment of particulate and fibrous particles occurs comprehensive modification of the surface layer, which consists in shaping the development of the morphology of the surface layer and increase its energy. For the modification of thermoplastic matrix including high-viscosity (polyamides, PTFE) prospectively the use of dispersed fragments of carbon fiber (CF) fraction 50-150 microns, subjected to the effects of a short pulse laser, having developed the morphology of the surface layer and the presence of defects through thermal degradation. When using this modifier in an amount of 5-30 wt.% for filling PA6, PA66, PTFE provides increased of parameters deformation and strength characteristics due to the increased mechanical component adhesive interaction at the interface of "matrix-filler". An additional effect is realized in the processing of the surface layer of CF fluoride compounds oligomeric or polymer-oligomeric structure. The modified fluorinated hydrocarbon components fragments CF when laser pulse processing are exposed to the active low molecular weight products ablation, so that the surface layers are formed with a high affinity to the matrix polytetrafluoroethylene. The complex method of modifying CF is effective for highly filled fluoro composites containing 25-35 wt.% of carbon fillers due to the decrease in the probability of formation of cluster structures of the filler particles. Dispersed particles silicate (clay, tripoli, talc) and carbon (graphite, carbon black, shungite) when exposed to laser radiation susceptible to degradation with the formation of nanoscale fragments in a moving layer, thus increasing their activity in the processes of the interfacial interaction in the formation of composites based on oligomeric and polymeric matrices.

• ## MECHANOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY IN MATERIALS SCIENCE OF FUNCTIONAL METAL-POLYMER COMPOSITES

There were studied mechanisms interfacial interactions in composite systems based on dispersed particles of polymer materials (polyolefins, polyamides, fluorcontaining polymers) and modifiers of various composition and structure in the combination process in the units with intense mechanical action. There were established the effects of formation of products of mechanochemical interaction of active centers of modifiers particles and radical fragments of macromolecules degradation. The obtained results allow changing the technological paradigm of the creation of high-strength and highly filled engineering nanocomposites based on high-molecular matrix.

• ## TECHNOLOGY LASER MODIFICATION IN MATERIAL SCIENCE NANOCOMPOSITES FOR METAL-POLYMERIC SYSTEMS

Are investigated mechanisms and kinetics of structural transformations polymeric substrates and of disperse particles fillers and modifiers exposed defocused laser radiation with energy in the range of 1.5 to 6 J. Installed effect of hardening the thermoplastic matrices (polyolefins, polyamides, of polyesters) when exposed to short laser pulses on a film sample thicknesses of 50-200 microns. The methods of structural analysis (IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, DTA) showed, that the predominant mechanism of manifestation hardening effect is the formation of nano-sized structures in the film sample volume due to leakage of recrystallization processes. When exposed to laser radiation to disperse and fibrous particles of silicates, graphite, schungite, carbon fibers is implementing a complex effect of increasing the dispersion and the formation of advanced morphology of the surface layer with an increase in the proportion of nano-sized fragments whisker and lamellar habitus. When laser irradiation of fibers fragments formed developed morphology of the surface layer, due to the occurrence of thermal degradation processes that lead to the appearance of cracks and of globular indentations. Spectroscopy method of thermally stimulated currents (TSC – spectroscopy) established the effect of changing the energy state of the surface layers of substrates and particulate modifiers, which are characterized by extreme values of magnitude TSC – currents in the temperature range 193-523 K. The combined effect of energy and morphological factors provides the effect of increasing the activity of modifying components subjected to the laser processing. Changing the energy state of the surface layer of the polymer substrate has a beneficial bactericidal effect, increases the effectiveness of antiseptic treatment of medical devices used in medical practice. Are presented examples of the practical use of the established laws when creating polymer composites for metal-polymer systems for various applications.

• ## NANOCOMPOSITE ENGINEERING MATERIALS BASED ON RECYCLED THERMOPLASTICS

There were studied features of the structure of composite materials on the basis of recycled thermoplastic (HDPE, LDPE, PP) modified by components of different composition and dispersion. It was established the hardening effect of the matrix of the composite with the introduction of the highly oriented fragments that preserve the structure after the completion of the technological cycle of manufacturing products by injection molding or extrusion. It was proposed the technology of thermo-mechanical combining of thermoplastic components while simultaneous modifying by components of different composition and structure. When modification of fluorinated nanoparticles ablation products is provided the effect of increasing the rate of extrusion and formation of hydrophobized surface layer of products. Nanoscale silicate modifiers (clay, tripoli, metals phosphates and oxides,) contribute to the thermodynamic compatibility of the matrix and the modifier polymer due to formation of a spatial network of physical binds in the volume of the composite. The obtaining technologies for products based on recycled composites that the parameters of deformation strength and tribological characteristics are not inferior to raw materials, but have a significantly lower cost of production.

• ## SIZE FACTOR SELECTION MODIFIERS FOR FUNCTIONAL NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS BASED ON POLYMER MATRICES

On the basis of modern concepts of condensed matter physics and quantum physics considered the criteria for inclusion ofdispersed particles of different composition, structure, and technological background to nanomodifiers of polymeric, oligomeric and combined matrices. There were proposed an analytical expression for the evaluation of limiting size of the dispersed particles L0, which characterizes the manifestation of a particular energy state – nanostate.There was implemented the analysis of experimental and literature data confirming the adequacy of the calculated value of the size of particles in nanostate obtained using relation L0=230•θD-1/2, where θD – Debye temperature. It is shown that the provision of effective modification of macromolecular matrices necessary and sufficient condition is the presence of dispersed particles of different composition and structure of nanoscale structural fragments of the surface layer, which ensure the implementation of synergies through a combination of energy and mechanical factors in the formation of boundary layers of the optimal structure.

• ## NANOSTATE PHENOMENON IN MATERIALS SCIENCE OF METAL-POLYMERIC SYSTEMS

There were considered the physical, structural and morphological prerequisites for the realization of the nanostate phenomenon of dispersed particles of condensed matter of different composition, nature and technology for production. It was shown the role of the size factor in the occurrence of the nanostate phenomenon due to the change of the energy parameters of the surface layers of particles that contribute to their effective modifying effect on the high-molecular matrix. Physical models of the formation of a particular energy state of dispersed particles and metallic and non-metallic materials substrates, characterized by the presence of local areas ("charge-mosaic") with a long relaxation time are proposed.It was considered practical application of the nanostate phenomenon when creating high-strength and wear-resistant materials based on thermoplastic matrices (PA6, PTFE, PET), consistent lubricant and lubricating oils, tribological and protective coatings for friction units and metalwares used in mechanical engineering, automotive and mining engineering. It was made the examples of the effective use of developed nanocomposite materials in practice.

• ## ENERGY ASPECTS OF STRUCTURE FORMATION OF NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON THERMOPLASTIC

Using methods of spectroscopy of thermally stimulated currents (TSC spectroscopy), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was done of the energy state of dispersed particles of different composition and structure – mineral (tripoli, shungit, clay, mica, silica) and synthetic (ultra dispersed polytetrafluoroethylene, nanodiamonds, silicate glass, metal oxides). There was established the effect of occurrence of the special energy state of dispersed particles, due to the presence of nanoscale components of the structure. There were studied parameters of the energy characteristics of the modifier (value and density of the residual charge, activation energy of the relaxation, time of charge relaxation et al.) depending on the action of technological factors – temperature, mechanical stress, energy flows. The optimal ranges of occurrence of effective modifying action in macromolecular matrices of various types – polymeric, oligomeric, combined. There were proposed technological principles formation of mechanical engineering nanocomposite materials with improved parameters of deformation and strength and tribological characteristics.

• ## MECHANOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN THE FORMATION OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS BASED ON POLYMERS

There were studied the mechanisms of interfacial processes when combining components of different composition, structure, and molecular weight in disintegrating type high-energy installations. The effects of formation of mechanochemical transformations products due to the flow of physical and chemical processes of interfacial interactions at the place of active centers of combined components were established. There were developed compositions and obtaining technology of composite materials and products containing mechanochemically combined components that cause the realization of synergies enhance the parameters of strength and tribological characteristics. The directions of the practical application of composites with mechanically activated components for the manufacture of tribological purpose products and coatings, which are used in metal-polymer constructions of vehicles and technological equipment.

• ## THIN FILM COATINGS FOR LOW WEAR METAL-POLYMER SYSTEMS

Innovations, Vol. 4 (2016), Issue 1, pg(s) 20-21

Investigated the features of the structure of the thin-film coatings based on polymeric and oligomeric matrix formed by dipping, spraying or rubbing. It was found a significant effect of energy substrate parameters and components of the coating on the mechanisms of interfacial interactions that determine the parameters of strength, tribological and protective coatings. The active layer morphology of the surface of the substrate formed by mechanical, laser or chemical influence, characterized by the presence of low-dimensional components of different habitus, which affect the energy and mechanical component adhesive strength. By managing service parameters of composite material components on the basis of polymeric and oligomeric matrix manages to change the mechanisms of formation of coatings on metal substrates of carbon steels and non-ferrous metals. Coatings based on the thermal ablation of PTFE products are effective in the process of running heavy-duty friction units and their operation at reversing the motion. Installed effect Nanophase formation regions in the volume of the coating, which help to increase their durability in friction without external supply of lubricant.