Reference framework and architecture for development of cyber-physical systems

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 4 (2019), Issue 5, pg(s) 212-215

    The strategic initiative Industry 4.0 implies integration of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing, leading to what is called “smart factory”. The lack of theoretical foundation and methodologies creates barriers that may hamper the adoption, commercialization, and market success of the new CPS applications. The reference frameworks and architectures support the analysis and specification of domains, and facilitates the unification of methods used by various disciplines such as industrial engineering, control theory, communication and information technology, thus making possible their combined use. The paper presents an analysis of the benefits and use of reference frameworks and architectures in the development of CPS. Standardized meta-models of reference frameworks and architectures are presented. Particular attention is paid to the NIST reference framework and architecture of CPS, with a view to establishing a methodology for development of Cyber-Physical Production Systems.

  • Standards for monitoring and control of cyber-physical systems

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 4 (2019), Issue 1, pg(s) 3-6

    The Industry 4.0 initiative imposes new requirements on cyber-physical systems in terms of interoperability, response time, communication capabilities, and more. A major approach to addressing these requirements is through the development and use of standard reference frameworks, architectures and models as well as the widespread and joint application of open industry standards. The aim of the article is to analyze the use of standards under the Fourth Industrial Revolution as well as to present and analyze some of the most applied standards in the field of monitoring and control of cyber-physical systems, such as AutomationML, OPC-UA, IEC-61449, IEC-61512. The reference architecture RAMI 4.0 was used to establish relationships and interactions between them.

  • Assessment of readiness for „Industry 4.0“

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 3 (2018), Issue 6, pg(s) 288-291

    The Industry 4.0 initiative poses great challenges to the world, countries and companies connected with the provided digital transformation and the new intelligent technologies in all areas of the industry. This requires the development and follow-up of a national strategy for the adoption and implementation of Industry 4.0. It is important in this case to assess the Industry 4.0 readiness of each country for transformation and change. The main aim of the paper is to present, analyse and compare some of the most promised existing approaches for calculation of Industry 4.0 readiness at national level. Some results are presented and compared.


    Industry 4.0, Vol. 3 (2018), Issue 4, pg(s) 157-160

    Monitoring and control of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) have many challenges related to the heterogeneous environment, the high degree of interaction between the components and the high requirements for functionality and scale. The paper presents an analysis of the state of the art in this area and proposes an approach for monitoring and control of CPS through the integration of the IEC-61499 based models for distributed control systems and the IEC-61512 standard providing domain specific models for design and control of batch production processes as well as the Signal- Interpreted Petri Nets used for the purpose of formal specification and verification of unit procedures. The approach is illustrated with an example of CPS for loading a batch tank and mixing of liquid flow.



    Industry 4.0, Vol. 2 (2017), Issue 6, pg(s) 241-244

    In order to achieve its goal in using intelligent adaptive and predictive technical systems with self-X functions and cognitive information processing in continuous interaction with environment, the Industry 4.0 initiative implies integration of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), the Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing leading to what is called "smart factory". This, in turn, faces the CPS with new challenges in terms of increasing the degree of distribution, autonomy, mobility, communication and security of the systems and their components, as well as expanding their functionality in the direction of data analytics, information and knowledge extraction, and increasing their intelligence. This paper discusses and analyses the CPS in the context of Industry 4.0 and the main trends in the development of process automation and control in order to suggest an appropriate and advanced agent based approach for development of CPS for process control. The proposed approach is based on using the following standards – from one side the IEC61499 Standard for agent specification and from other side the IEC62264 and IEC 61512 Standards for defining the different kind of agents in the control system. The presented approaches are illustrated with a partly presented example of development of Injector control system. Finally some conclusions are made.