• ## Study plane-parallel motion movement combined seeding unit

Conducted analytical studies, resulted in the construction of a new mathematical model of plane-parallel motion combined simultaneous sowing unit and bandpass mineral fertilizers. If you use the original equation in the form of Lagrange II-the kind, the system was composed of six differential equations of motion, that describes the behavior of the combined unit with its plane-parallel motion. Defined analytical expressions for the forces, that act on the machine unit, can be solved on the PC.

## THE STUDY OF MOVEMENT WIDE SPAN TRACTOR (VEHICLES) WITH KINEMATIC (TURN OF WHEELS) METHOD OF ITS CONTROL

Prospective energy technology devises for controlled traffic farming is the wide span tractor (vehicles). Their driving can be built behind the kinematic or force principle of the turn. At the kinematic turn, the schemes are applied by turning the steered wheels (front, rear or both front and rear) relative to the car’s frame. The widest distribution in wide span tractor (vehicles) was obtained by turning schemes with all steerable wheels. The theoretical foundations of the dynamics of the parallel-span parallel motion tractor (vehicles) in the horizontal plane are presented in the article under the kinematic method of its control (by turning the wheels). Theoretical research is based on the basic principles of theoretical mechanics, tractor theory, statistical dynamics and the theory of automatic control of linear dynamical systems when they reproduce statistically random control and disturbing input effects. The amplitude and phase frequency characteristics are based on the analysis of the evaluation of the degree of influence of the circuit and parameters of the investigated wide span tractor (vehicles) on its controllability and stability of motion. The physical object of the theortical studies was the prototype of the wide span tractor (vehicles) of the new design. Mathematical models of the wide span tractor (vehicles) movement are represented in the differential and operator form of recording. On the basis of mathematical models, the calculated amplitude and phase-frequency characteristics of the dynamic control system development are plotted, represented by the average rotation angle of the front wheels of the wide span tractor (vehicles). The constructed mathematical models, amplitude and phase-frequency characteristics allow estimating the effect of the control parameter of the wide span tractor (vehicles), as well as its design and other parameters on the controllability and stability of motion.

## MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF INTERACTION OF THE FLEXIBLE CLEANING BLADE WITH ROOT CROP HEAD

Modern technologies of harvesting sugar beet tops provide solid preliminary cutting and collecting its harvest at the increased altitude and subsequent additional root crops heads cleaning from tops residues on a root. This last operation also defines quality of root crops of beet before their digging up. Objective of this research is improvement quality of root crops heads cleaning from tops remains, by development of interaction theory of flexible cleaning blade with a spherical surface of root crop head. In the theoretical study were used methods of modeling, higher mathematics and theoretical mechanics, as well as programming and carrying out numerical calculations on the PC. As a result of the conducted theoretical research the interaction theory of flexible cleaning blade with a root crop head surface in the course of its cleaning from tops remains is developed. On the basis of the received differential equations of blade movement which is pivotally mounted on the drive shaft with a horizontal axis of rotation, new mathematical dependences which justify basic parameters of this technology process are given.

## ON THE ISSUE OF REDUCING THE HARMFUL INFLUENCE OF THE MOBILE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS UNITS ON THE SOIL

The article is devoted to the problem of increasing the efficiency of using mobile agricultural aggregates by reducing the impact of their running systems on the soil. The work on the efficiency of the use of mobile agricultural units based on the automobile chassis in agroindustrial production is analyzed, which shows the results of studies on the changes in their designs with the purpose of reducing the harmful influence of chassis running systems on soil. One of the ways to reduce the harmful influence of running systems of mobile agricultural units on Execution of technological operations, both in field conditions and in transport operations while driving along the road Mobile roads. The main ways that will ensure the effective use of the automobile chassis in field conditions and on highways are analyzed. It has been found that the most effective is the equipment of automobile chassis with wide – profile tires with adjustable internal air pressure and a tire – pumping control system, which makes it possible to effectively use the chassis both in the main technological operations (in the field) and in transport operations (on the roads). The influence of the air pressure in the tire of the wheel of the running system of the KrAZ – 6322 automobile chassis and the normal load on the contact area of the tire with the supporting surface and pressure on it is established. To use the automobile chassis for performing agricultural operations in field conditions, it is necessary to equip it with wide – profile tires with adjustable internal air pressure and a tire – pumping monitoring system that will reduce the negative impact on the soil of the mobile agricultural unit and expand the list of technological operations on which it can be used.

## THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE MOTOBLOCK STABILIZING ON A SLOPE WORKS

One of the most acute problems in the effective use of small-sized agricultural machinery, in particular, motor blocks, is the stabilization of their rectilinear motion on the slopes work. The purpose of this study is to increase the stabilizing moment of the motor block, by theoretically justifying its movement across the slope with a stabilizing device. The research uses modeling methods, theoretical mechanics and higher mathematics. As a result of the theoretical study, the conditions for the balance of the running wheels of the aggregate in the structure of the motor block and the agricultural implement when moving along the slope surface, as well as the traction of the wheels with the soil, are determined, taking into account the lateral force leading this unit down the slope. At the same time, as a stabilizing device, a micro-tiller is used, which makes it possible to pre-make a stabilizing groove for the wheels of the motor block. Further, using the developed power circuit, analytical expressions are compiled that allow us to numerically determine the structural and power parameters of a given aggregate, allowing it to stabilize its steady motion when working on a slope.

## THEORETICAL STUDY TO DETERMINE THE STANDARD SIZE RANGE OF AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS

Since the tractor is the main energy source in agriculture, the state with highly developed agrarian production, tractor and agricultural machine building should have a fairly clear and consistent policy in the field of organizing the production and supply to agricultural producers of a wide range of tractors for various purposes. Such a policy is based on the type of mobile energy resources, i.e. tractors, based on a deep analysis and study of the volume of agricultural production, the needs for mechanized technologies, the theory of the operation of agricultural machines, the overall assessment of the development of high-tech agriculture. The purpose of this study is to develop theoretical bases for calculating the type of agricultural tractors based on an optimization of technical and economic analysis, taking into account the need for a qualitative and timely implementation of the entire closed set of works in agricultural production. During the research methods of machine use in agriculture, higher mathematics, economics, compilation of programs and numerical calculations on PC were used. The results of the study showed that the classification of tractors should be carried out not according to traction power (as is done in most countries of the world), but by the nominal traction force developed by them. It has been established that this gives a more accurate representation of the operational properties of an energy tool, which in turn allows for the very accurate and correct selection of complexes of appropriate agricultural machinery and implements for its effective operation. The presented theoretical approaches allow to determine with a high degree of accuracy the type of agricultural tractors for any country.

## THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF CUTTING FORCE OF THE SUGAR BEET TOPS FROM ROOT CROP HEAD

Beet tops harvesting is a complex task of the sugar beet growing industry which forms the qualitative indicators of root crops during their further digging out from the soil and determines the loss of tops and sugar-bearing mass. In the development of theoretical foundations of the optimal tops cutting from heads of sugar beet root by different types of topping working bodies should take into account forces which act at the same time and the rational cutting height. Theoretical researches having been carried out hitherto concerned only the detailed analytical description of the functioning of the new designs of topping working bodies and practically did not concern the general provisions of the separation tops from the head of root crop. The aim of this study is the theoretical determination of the forces that occur at the contact point of cutting working body of topper machines with root crops head of sugar beet root crop. When carrying out theoretical studies are used the methods of mathematics, theoretical mechanics, strength of materials, methods of programming and numerical calculations on PC. As a result, of the theoretical research new analytical dependencies of force describing the processes of crumpling and subsequently cutting of sugar beet heads by topping working body, depending on the size and shape of root crops heads and design parameters of topper have been obtained. As a result, of numerical calculations on PC critical level value of penetration of the cutting element of topping working body into root crops head of sugar beet and maximum value of cutting force at which ejection of root vegetables from the soil doesn’t take place, was defined. The obtained theoretical dependencies and values of normal reaction and cutting forces are the basis for the further working out of a mathematical model of dynamic interaction system of cutting working bodies with the heads of sugar beet.

• ## THEORY OF CALCULATION FOR STRENGTH TRAY PLANTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROPONIC GREEN FODDER

Production of hydroponic green fodder is an important task of agriculture, which in developed countries is given enough attention. Currently, the world’s developed a considerable number of various designs installations for the production of hydroponic products, but the main working body of these installations are trays in which the cultivation of hydroponic green fodder, as one of the most simple, but fairly effective devices for seeding, cultivation and the ready products. Due to the fact that each of the trays used for these purposes is a resilient structure which is under the influence of considerable forces and bending moments, to design it requires fairly accurate preliminary and final strength calculations. The aim of this study is to develop guidelines on the calculation theory of plant trays strength for the production of hydroponic green fodder. The study used modeling techniques, higher mathematics, mechanics of materials and structures, in particular the theory of elasticity of plates and shells, as well as the methods of calculation and programming on a PC.

The study built a mechanical model and the design of the tray scheme, defined analytical expressions to change the maximum and calculated moments in his dangerous sections and constructed diagrams of bending and torque. Further graphs of changes in the safety margin of the tray frame, depending on the area of seed tube parameters and from which it is made. These charts should be used for the calculation and control of the results. A new theory can be used in calculating the strength of similar containers, which are used in the mechanization of agricultural production

• ## POSSIBILITIES OF THE REDUCTION OF NITROGEN LOSSES FROM SOIL AND THE IMPACT OF FERTILIZERS ON ENVIRONMENT BY UTILISATION OF NITRIFICATION INHIBITORS

Aim of the paper was to compare the effects of two very similar fertilisers on nitrous oxide (N2O) flux from soil to the atmosphere in laboratory conditions. There were used following fertilisers: granulated nitrogenous fertiliser DASA® 26/13 with content of nitrogen is 26 %, content of sulphur is 13 %, and nitrogen fertiliser ENSIN® containing sulphur and nitrification inhibitors dicyandiamide DCD and 1,2,4- triazole (TZ). Both fertilisers are produced by the same manufacturer DUSLO, Inc., Šala, Slovakia. For both fertilisers there were carried -1 out three variants of experiments for equivalent of application rates 0, 250 and 500 kg.ha . The amount of N2O emissions released from soil to the atmosphere was measured by photo-acoustic field gas monitor INNOVA 1412 connected to multipoint sampler INNOVA 1309. The experiments were conducted for 30 days in laboratory conditions. The fertiliser was incorporated into the soil in sampling tubes to a depth of 80 mm after 24-hours measurement. Subsequently, after every 24 hours of measurement, another 48 hours was carried out, and this measuring cycle was repeated 10 times. The results of our experiment have confirmed that the fertiliser application rate and type of used fertiliser have a significant effect on N2O flux and have confirmed the importance of accurate and uniform application of the fertilisers in field conditions in order to eliminate the negative environmental effects.

• ## DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURES AND RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF THE NEW MODULAR POWER UNIT

The article presents the results of experimental studies of the soil tillage unit based on a new modular power machine of variable traction class. It includes the universal tractor of drawbar category 1.4 (2.0) and technological unit as an additional bridge, having active drive wheels from synchronous PTO-shaft of the tractor. The new modular power facility with experienced five-part plow has been investigated in wheat stubble plowing. Obtained operational and technological parameters are compared with the same regulatory parameters of the tillage unit as part of a tractor of class 1,4 and a three-part plow. It is found that the performance of a new replaceable unit is 1.9 times higher and the specific fuel consumption is 27.5% less in comparison with the standard unit.
Special laboratory and field experimental studies established the degree of influence of the wheels on the process of compaction of different initial moisture content (12.8…20.8%) after the passage of the wheels of the front and rear axles of the tractor of class 1,4.

• ## THE BENEFITS AND EFFICIENCY OF PRECISION IRRIGATION

The contribution was to develop methods for irrigation management using knowledge in the field of precision agriculture. In the monitoring points were established basic hydrolimits: Field capacity (FC) and wilting point (WP). Irrigation rate ranged from 0 to 40 mm for a specific term assessment of soil moisture. Throughout the growing season used to be applied precisely five irrigation benefits. A high savings were observed between conventional and precise irrigation (water, energy and economic savings). The results show that it is a fully effective system of precision agriculture, although the procurement and introduction of new technology and the software requires first expending a considerable financial cost. Higher demands are placed on the skill and education services.

• ## THEORY FOR ATTACHMENT OF TRACTOR-DRIVEN SUGAR BEET HARVESTING MACHINES

An analytical study is related to giving proof and selection of the optimal parameters for the units, consisting of a tractor and a tractor-driven sugar beet harvesting machine. A mathematical model is built on the basis of this study and describes the conditions for effective attachment and give opportunity for determination of the working speed and productivity. The calculations allow finding the optimal parameters of the mentioned above aggregates in relation to productivity and energy consumption.