• MATERIALS

    GEOMETRY AND SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF POLYMERIC SAMPLES PRODUCED BY STEREOLITHOGRAPHY

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 11 (2017), Issue 4, pg(s) 198-201

    The purpose of the present paper is to evaluate the geometric accuracy and surface roughness of polymeric samples manufactured by Digital Light Projection (DLP) Stereolithography. The standard cubic samples with dimensions 5 mm х 5 mm х 5 mm were printed of two polymers: NextDent C+B (white-yellowish color A3.5, VITA shade guide) and NextDent Cast (dark-red color), in two ways of placement to the base – horizontally and inclined at 45о. The samples were printed with two different layer’s thickness – 35 μm and 50μm. It was established that the samples of both polymers, manufactured in horizontal position with the lower layer’s thickness (35μm) possess highest dimensional accuracy and lowest interval of deviation. The most accurate are the dimesons parallel to the basis, while these, parallel or inclined to the print direction, have the highest deviations. The interval of the deviations of the dimensions of samples, manufactured inclined at 45o, is nearly 2-3 times higher, as the interval of the samples, made of NextDent Cast, is more than 50% higher than that of NextDent C+B. The horizontally printed samples have 1.5-2 times lower surface roughness compared to the samples, printed inclined at 45o. The surface roughness of the samples, made of NextDent Cast, is 30-50% higher than that of NextDent C+B independently of the layer’s thickness. The increase of the thickness from 35 μm to 50μm leads to 1.5-2 times higher surface roughness in the two samples’ positions. The optical properties of both polymers in the research strongly influence the geometric characteristics, dimensional accuracy and surface roughness of the objects, manufactured by DLP stereolithography.

  • MATERIALS

    TRIBO-CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF CAST AND SELECTIVE LASER MELTED Co-Cr ALLOY FOR DENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 10 (2016), Issue 12, pg(s) 61-64

    Cobalt-chromium based alloys are widely used in dental applications due to their excellent mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility. Although they are generally fabricated by casting for dental restorations, recently selective laser melting (SLM) has become an attractive production method since it allows complex geometries. Recent studies revealed that Co-Cr alloys formed by SLM, provided better corrosion resistance as well.

    In this study, tribo-corrosion behavior of a Co-Cr-Mo alloy produced by casting (Biosil-Degudent) was compared with the one (Co212-f ASTM F75) produced by SLM. The wear properties were investigated by tribo-corrosion tests in a Fusayama-Meyer artificial saliva solution using a “ball-on-disc” type tribometer. Polished surfaces were tested against zirconia balls at the same sliding speed, distance and load. Friction coefficient values were determined and the worn surfaces were evaluated using microscopes to compare the wear and tribo- corrosion resistance through wear tracks. SLM proved to be a promising manufacturing method for dental applications.

  • SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF PURE TITANIUM AFTER ANODIZATION

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 8 (2014), Issue 12, pg(s) 3-7

    Present paper deals with the investigation of the surface morphology of pure titanium after anodization. Round samples of CP Ti were anodized at different voltages (16V, 20V, 25V, 30V and 40V) in an electrolyte containing 0.5 wt.% HF. The process duration varied from 30min to 7 hours. The samples’ surface was observed and EDX analysis was made by SEM. Surface morphology of CP Ti after anodization is defined by the surface roughness before anodization, electrolyte type and process parameters – voltage and duration. It was established that the surface of pure titanium after 3h-7h anodization at all voltages characterizes with large number of craters increasing the surface micro-roughness. At short-term processes only pores with about 2µm diameter were observed. Depending on the regimes used different oxide nanostructures were observed. After short-term anodization in lower voltages the titanium surface was covered with nanodots, nanorods and nanoflakes. Increasing the voltage up to 25 V led to originating of nano-tubular structure in some areas and sponge-like nano-structure at 30 V and 40 V. Increasing the process duration caused increase of the proportion of nanotubes and sponge- like structure to that of nanorods.

  • ADHESION STRENGTH EVALUATION OF CERAMIC COATINGS ON CAST AND SELECTIVE LASER MELTED Co-Cr DENTAL ALLOYS USING TENSILE SPECIMENS

    Materials Science. Non-Equilibrium Phase Transformations., Vol. 3 (2017), Issue 2, pg(s) 49-52

    Studying the fracture characteristics of porcelain coatings plays a main role in selection of materials for metal-ceramic restorations. The aim of this work is to study the effect of the substrate manufacturing process on the adherence of the porcelain. The coatings of porcelain IPS.Inline (Ivoclar Vivadent) are fused onto dental Co-Cr alloys fabricated via casting (Biosil F) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM) (Co212-f). The adhesion strength of the ceramic coatings is studied under tensile load of flat specimens. The interfacial shear strength is determined using experimental results. The shear stress distributions in the metal-ceramic interface at the critical load are evaluated by analytical approach. It is established that the interfacial shear strength values of ceramic coating are 67.5 MPa for cast Biosil F alloy and 83.8 MPa for SLM Co212-f alloy. The higher shear strength of the porcelain to the SLM samples is due to the nearly two times higher surface roughness, which is reason for increasing both the mechanical and the chemical adhesion. The nature of the fracture of the ceramic coating on the Co-Cr alloys, produced by casting and SLM, is similar and is mixed adhesive–cohesive mode. The higher adhesion strength of the porcelain coating to the SLM dental alloy is a good precondition for the SLM application in production of metal-ceramic fixed partial dentures for areas with heavy loads.

  • MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DENTAL Co-Cr ALLOYS FABRICATED VIA CASTING AND SELECTIVE LASER MELTING

    Materials Science. Non-Equilibrium Phase Transformations., Vol. 2 (2016), Issue 3, pg(s) 3-7

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the mechanical properties (hardness and tensile strength) of dental Co-Cr alloys fabricated via casting and selective laser melting (SLM). Two groups of metallic specimens (four-part dental bridges and standard tensile test specimens) made of Co–Cr dental alloys were produced by lost-wax casting and SLM processes. Vickers hardness distribution along the depth of the dental bridges as well as the Rockwell hardness and tensile strength of the samples were studied out. The hardness of Co–Cr dental alloys are dependent on the manufacturing technique employed. It was established that the average Vickers hardness of the samples, produced by SLM, was higher than that of the cast samples 382 HV and 335 HV respectively. The nearly even hardness distribution in the bridges, produced by SLM, and fluctuations of the hardness values along the depth of the cast bridges were observed. The Rockwell measurements confirmed the higher hardness of the SLM samples – 39 HRC in comparison with that of the cast ones – 33 HRC. The tensile strength is in good agreement with the hardness values. Due to the unique microstructure, the yield strength and tensile strength for the SLM samples were higher than those of the as-cast alloy.

  • ADHESION ANALYSIS OF TITANIUM OXIDE NANOCOATINGS ON TITANIUM SURFACE

    Materials Science. Non-Equilibrium Phase Transformations., Vol. 2 (2016), Issue 1, pg(s) 46-51

    Ti and its alloys are mostly used for implant production. Their biocompatibility depends on the formation of thin TiO2 layer on the surface. It can be improved by modification of oxide structure in tubular. For biomedical applications, the adhesion of the coating layers is essential. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the adhesion of TiO2 nanocoatings on titanium surface.

    Commercially pure Ti (CP Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V alloy samples were grinded, etched and anodized. The anodization was done in 0.5 wt.% HF electrolyte with duration of 7 hours for the CP Ti samples and 6 hours for Ti-6Al-4V alloy samples. The adhesion was investigated by tape and scratch tests. The critical loads that generate the first failures during the scratch test are used for characterization of the adhesion of the TiO2 nano-tubular coating. The critical loads were measured by CSEM-Revetest macroscratch tester under progressive scratching mode. The samples were characterized by SEM and EDX analysis. The areas around the critical load were further observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy for detail inspection of failure mechanism.

    It was established that the higher micro-roughness of the surface of CP Ti sample after anodization is responsible for the detachment only of small areas of the nano-tubular coating situated mainly on the top surface. The lower micro-roughness of the sample made of titanium alloy and the presence of large flat areas lead to detachment of large coating’s portions. The scratch test reveals that the TiO2 nano-tubular coating on the CP Ti fails at an early stage (Lc1 ~ 8 N; Lc2 ~ 26 N), while that on the Ti-6Al-4V sample undergoes cohesive failure and completely fails at higher load values (Lc1 ~ 13 N and Lc2 ~ 40 N respectively). As titanium alloy is ductile material with higher strength than the CP Ti, it provides better support for the coating and produces higher critical loads.