Analysis of Human Development Index (HDI) in Georgia with Local Regions

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 9 (2024), Issue 1, pg(s) 42-47

    The human development index (HDI) is a statistical composite index for assessing the human development (HD) of a country or region of the world. For 2021, HDI was analyzed for 191 countries of the world (HDR report that was published in 2022). The maximum value of HDI=0.962 was the country of Switzerland, and the minimum value of HDI=0.3385 was the country of South Sudan. The mean value of HDI for all countries of the world in 2021 was AM=0.732. The paper contains an analysis of data of the human development index (HDI) in Georgia with local regions for the period 2000-2021. Based on the HDI index, Georgia was ranked in the Q2 quartile for the period 2000-2021, with CGI=114.25 [%] per year in 2021 compared to 2000 and average annual growth rate (AAGR)=0.74 [%]. The capital Tbilisi had the highest values of the SHDI index in Georgia for the period 2000-2021, so for the regions Adjara, Imereti Racha-Lochkhumi Kv, etc., while the region Mtskheta-Mtianeti has the lowest values of the SHDI index.


    Trend Analysis of Using of Green Energies in Georgia until 2040

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 8 (2023), Issue 5, pg(s) 193-197

    The main sources of green energy (GE) as the cleanest form of energy or types of renewable energy sources (RES) are: wind, water, sun and earth. While the world, especially in the most developed countries of the world, has advanced far in the application of various forms of green energy (GE), in Georgia this field is in its infancy and it is not possible to predict when the first major positive developments in this field will be made. The paper presents the forecast and trend analysis of the use of green energy (GE) in Georgia until 2040. According to the data on the plans of the state authorities of Georgia for the development and use of various forms of green energy (GE), the highest forecast growth of the development of these types of energy is expected in the field of wind energy (WE) until 2025 with a value of
    CAGR of 154.82 [%].


    Statistical Analysis of the Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloys EN AW-6060 (AlMgSi0,5)

    Innovations, Vol. 11 (2023), Issue 3, pg(s) 97-100

    Aluminum belongs to the group of light metals, which as pure aluminum does not have good enough mechanical properties for most engineering requirements. Therefore, in order to improve the exploitation properties of aluminum, it undergoes an alloying process, where different chemical elements are added to it, each of which has its own different role. Alloying is carried out mostly to increase hardness and tensile strength, then to increase machinability and stiffness, and sometimes toughness and castability. The most important chemical elements used for alloying aluminum are magnesium, copper, silicon, zinc and manganese, while chromium, titanium and iron are used as impurities. This paper presents the parameters of descriptive statistic mechanical properties of aluminum alloys EN AW-6060 (AlMgSi0,5).


    A new type of nail for wooden structures with increased resilience

    Innovations, Vol. 11 (2023), Issue 1, pg(s) 18-21

    In the following work, we present the results from a research of a type of nail with a new form of section, in comparison to the round section that currently used nails have. This new form is similar to an equilateral triangle, the sides of which’ are curves [Reuleaux Triangle]. The body section of this new type of nail has three curves and three edges; his surface SR is with 5.56% larger than the surface SC of a round nail with the same section area. From the experimental research that has been made so far, it was established: (i) because of the larger compaction of the wooden material in the ends of the edges, and of the larger surface, you get a bigger friction force, resulting in a pulling-out force Fto,R that is on average twice as bigger as the pulling-out force Fto,C; (ii) because that the new form of nail has edges, this leads to bigger resistance during the rotating of the joined wooden elements one against another – the moment Mr is on average 60% bigger than the one with elements, joined with a normal nail. These advantages, as well as the use of the existing technology and machines for the production of nails without having to effect any major changes, create the conditions for the application of the new type of nail in construction, furniture production and in the everyday life, for an output of products with larger resistance to external forces. This effect will be especially useful for increasing the residential buildings’ resilience during earthquakes, hurricanes and other natural disasters.


    Classification of Green Energies and Possibilities of their Effective Use

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 7 (2022), Issue 6, pg(s) 254-258

    Wind, water, earth and fire, according to ancient philosophy, are the basic elements of the entire cosmos, with the help of which the existence of all things on planet earth is realized. Three (wind, water and earth) of these four basic elements represent renewable energy sources (RES), and in that sense also sources of green energy (GE). While the world, especially in the most developed countries of the world, has advanced far in the application of various forms of green energy, in Georgia this field is in its infancy and it cannot be predicted when the first major positive developments in this field will be made. The paper provides a basic division of sources (forms) of energy, taking into account the possibility of depletion over time, as well as examples of efficient application of hybrid green energy systems, for converting energy, primarily wind and sun, into electrical energy. Thus, the development and application of hybrid green energy systems, from a scientific and industrial point of view, will be one of the main goals in the future.


    Tribological Examinations of X210Cr12 Steel

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 7 (2022), Issue 4, pg(s) 131-134

    In order to test the tribological properties of the high alloy ledeburite steel X210Cr12, test samples were made on which the mass loss was measured before and after the wear test. The test was performed using the “pin on disk” method on the Taber abraser device, with part of the samples tested without lubricant and part with lubricant to compare and present the results. X210Cr12 steel was chosen as the material for the pin sample, while low alloy steel was chosen for the disk sample. In the lubricant test, hemp oil was used and analyzed to show the effects of this oil on the lubrication and wear of the material. During the test, each sample was subjected to a modified load and a modified number of cycles. From the test results, it can be concluded that hemp oil exhibited satisfactory properties over all test cycles, with an approximately constant pattern of mass loss. In addition, hemp oil showed more favorable properties at higher test loads and a greater number of test cycles, so it can be used as a lubricant based on the test results obtained under test conditions such as those that prevailed in this test.


    Investigation of the dependence of axial force and torque on the geometric parameters of carbide micro-drills with variable slopes of spiral grooves

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 14 (2020), Issue 2, pg(s) 65-69

    Micro-drilling (MD or мD) is type of machining (processing) technology used for the drilling of miniaturized parts of small diameter in micro-scale, ie. diameter in a range of a few microns to several hundred microns. In paper is given the dependence of axial efforts and torque on different modes of depth of drilling in micro-drilling with micro-drills from solid alloy VK60M with standard rake angle ω=300 and f=0.01 [mm/turn