Use of cold metal transfer technology in the restoration of functional areas

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 16 (2022), Issue 10, pg(s) 329-332

    CMT technology provides significant advantages, such as reduced deformation due to high temperatures, high welding speed and a significant reduction in spatter compared to the MIG/MAG method. The experimental work was focused on verifying the possibility of renovating the surfaces of molds for high-pressure aluminum casting using CMT technology. A mold wear analysis was performed and a method of restoring functional surfaces was proposed. Two types of additive materials were used – Thermanit 625 and Thermanit X. The quality of the layers was evaluated by SEM, EDX microanalysis and the coefficients of friction of the layers were determined by the Ball-ondisc method. The renovation layers were also subjected to an immersion test in Al alloy at 680 °C.


    Friction stir welding of dissimilar materials based on aluminum alloys

    Innovations, Vol. 10 (2022), Issue 2, pg(s) 76-78

    The paper focuses on the application of friction stir welding (FSW) technology for welding of unequal materials based on aluminum alloys. Joints were made from AW 5083 and AW 6082 materials using FSW technology at different weld speed values. The joints were analyzed metallographically, the hardness of the materials was tested across the cross section of the joint and the strength of the joint was tested by destructive static tensile test. At the lowest weld speed, the materials were not perfectly mixed, there was a macroscopically visible gap at the joint location, which was reflected in the lack of joint strength. At the medium and highest weld speed values, a joint with mechanical properties comparable to those of the base material was formed. Metallographically, the bond between the materials was free of any internal defects.


    Quality assessment of heterogeneous welding joints made by GMAW method

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 16 (2022), Issue 5, pg(s) 159-164

    At present, various types of steel grades are used in the production of welded structures and assemblies, resp. combinations of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. In these mutual combinations, it is necessary to know the specifics of weldability of both materials, to choose a suitable welding technology and a suitable filler material. In the experimental part, the quality of heterogeneous welded joints was verified by the GMAW method. A protective gas atmosphere of 82% Ar + 18% CO2 was used for welding (M21 – ISO 14175: 2008). The possibilities of welding and mutual combinations of austenitic stainless steel with structural non-alloy steel, structural alloyed high-strength steel with structural non-alloy steel were assessed. The quality of welds was evaluated using non-destructive and destructive tests in terms of standards: visual test STN EN ISO 17637, capillary penetration test STN EN ISO 22476-12, internal errors were evaluated using radiation tests STN EN ISO 17636-1. The destructive tests used the tensile test STN EN ISO 6892-1, the weld fracture test STN EN ISO 5173 and the Vickers hardness test STN EN ISO 6507-1, the bending impact test STN EN ISO 9016 and the metallographic analysis according to STN EN ISO 17639.


    Testing of technology for joining materials in the automotive industry

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 15 (2021), Issue 7, pg(s) 267-270

    Research on composite materials is nowadays developed on a global scale, because they have multipurpose applications. Composite materials are used in a wide range of industries. The most significant advantages of composite materials include st rength, stiffness, low fibre density (e.g. carbon fibre or glass fibre), the ability to make them into any shape required for the application. The paper deals with the possibilities of joining composite materials with metallic materials. The experimental part includes tests of the strength of the chosen type of adhesive and comparison of the individual results obtained by the experiment.


    Renovation of worn surfaces of equipment in the metallurgical industry

    Innovations, Vol. 9 (2021), Issue 4, pg(s) 154-157

    The paper presents the possibilities of renovation of worn functional surfaces of roll for continuous steel casting. The cylinder was made of steel 24CrMoV55 – DIN 17240. The lifetime of the continuous casting line roll is limited by the quality of their functional surface. The worn roll is decommissioned and the extent of its damage has been assessed. Cracks are a limiting factor in deciding on its renovation. Renovation of functional surfaces of roller from a diameter of ø 200 mm is realized by technology submerged arc welding (SAW). The article presents the results of research into the quality of newly formed cladding layers. Their quality was evaluated using non-destructive and destructive tests. Based on the performed experiments, it can be stated that the used surface renovation procedure is suitable for the renovation of functional surfaces of continuous steel casting rolls.


    Application of progressive technologies in the restoration of functional areas of products

    Innovations, Vol. 9 (2021), Issue 2, pg(s) 69-72

    The paper presents the results of research focused on the restoration of functional areas of products by the application of PTA technology. Hardfacing layers intended for the renovation of the surfaces of aluminum alloy injection molds were evaluated. The base material was medium alloy steel X38CrMoV5-1 (H11). Three types of powder additives were applied to form the functional layers: two types based on iron, designated HSS 23 and HSS 30, and one type based on nickel, designated DEW Nibasit 625 -P. The quality of the layers was evaluated using non-destructive and destructive tests. The surface integrity of the layers was assessed by visual and capillary tests. The microstructure of the materials and its hardness were evaluated. The tribological properties of the welds were determined by the pin-on-disc method.


    High pressure die casting mould renovation by cladding

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 14 (2020), Issue 3, pg(s) 114-116

    The paper presents the results of the research of the evaluation of the overlay layers quality made by the fusible arc methods. By applying arc welding methods, it is possible to significantly extend the life of injection molds and thus significantly reduce production costs. The newly formed layers must meet a number of requirements so as not to degrade the advantages of high-pressure injection technology over conventional casting technologies. High pressure casting solves most of the problems of conventional casting technologies such as: porosity of the casting, high surface roughness, long casting time, inability to produce thin cross-sections and low dimensional accuracy. During exploitation, the mold surface is damaged, mostly by thermal cracking and combined adhesive-abrasive wear. Material used for high pressure die casting permanent mold is a medium alloyed hot tool steel Uddeholm Dievar. Layers were made using three types of filler materials on the Fronius TransTig 4000. To eliminate the effect of mixing, three layers were made. The quality of the deposits was assessed by non-destructive and destructive tests.


    Application of hardfacing layers for renovation of functional surfaces exposed to abrasive wear

    Trans Motauto World, Vol. 5 (2020), Issue 2, pg(s) 38-40

    The paper presents results of quality evaluation of hardfacing layers applied to functional parts of dredger teeth. Layers were made by arc welding methods MMAW and FCAW. High-alloy types of filler materials were used in the experiment. Their chemical composition allows the production of overlay layers with a high content of carbide particles. These particles ensure high resistance to abrasive wear of the layers. Excavator teeth were made by casting high-grade manganese steels Grade B-3 A 128 / A128M-93. In the experiments, the presence of surface defects of the weld deposit was assessed by visual inspection. The resistance of the hard-facing layers to the effects of abrasive wear was assessed using a Di-1 experimental apparatus and evaluated on the basis of weight loss.