Energy efficiency measures to reduce the carbon footprint: A case study of Tirana airport

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 9 (2024), Issue 4, pg(s) 149-153

    One of the biggest challenges of our century is climate change. The aviation industry is a major contributor to global carbon emissions, and airports are responsible for a significant portion of this impact. To reduce the carbon footprint of airports, it is necessary to implement energy efficiency measures that can help reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This study analyzes the impact of the use of photovoltaic panels (PV) and the replacement of boiler burners with oil, on energy efficiency and the reduction of carbon emissions at the airport of Tirana. The electricity produced by these panels is used to power airport buildings, lighting systems and other infrastructure, reducing the need for traditional energy sources.
    The reviewed period covers the year 2023, because during this year important investments were made with the installation of photovoltaic panels and the replacement of oil boiler burners with LPG burner, in addition to the improvement of the lighting system and the replacement of diesel vehicles with electric vehicles. Energy consumption data is used to calculate the carbon footprint and key energy performance indicators. The results showed that the use of photovoltaic panels and the change of burners of oil boilers brought a significant reduction of the carbon footprint and a significant economic benefit.


    Wind Energy in Albania, a Factor in the Decarbonization of the Energy Sector in the Region

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 7 (2022), Issue 2, pg(s) 45-49

    Albania has significant renewable energy resource potential from hydro, wind and solar energy. It is a special case regarding electricity generation because most of (99%) is provided using large and medium hydro power plants. So, energy generation in Albania is free from greenhouse gas emissions. But since hydrological conditions change from year to year, the country has been forced to support the import of electricity from countries in the region and mainly from Kosovo. The use of wind energy in Albania would not only reduce dependence on imports but also would affect the decarbonization of the energy sector in the region, which is supported by fossil resources. This study estimates the amount of CO2 that could be reduced if a renewable energy source, such as wind energy, would replace energy generation from the use of fossil fuels sources. In case when the energy is generated from coal thermal power plants in Kosovo, emitting an average of 1,205 tCO2/MWh, results in reduction of 36,632.5 tCO2 for generating 30.6 GWh electricity yearly and in case when electricity generation is from Vlora gas power plant, emitting an average of 0.341 tCO2/MWh results in reduction of 10,379.3 tCO2 for the same amount of electricity generated in first case.


    Energy optimization of the building through the use of thermal insulation, solar panels, and efficient boiler

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 8 (2023), Issue 6, pg(s) 326-329

    This study presents an evaluation of the application of thermal insulation, solar panels, and an efficient boiler in a kinder garden to improve energy efficiency. The main objective of this study is to identify and analyze the benefits of using these technologies in reducing energy losses, increasing clean energy production, and achieving economic benefits. Thermal insulation is used to limit the transfer of heat between the building and the external environment, reducing energy losses for heating and cooling. In our case we have a saving of 7148 kWhr/year. The installation of the solar panel plant for heating sanitary water has brought an annual economic benefit of 102,583 ALL per year, meanwhile the choice of a gas boiler for heating the premises has been more cost effective compared to the use of oil.


    Economic Comparison of the Two Proposed Wind Farms in Mamaj, Albania

    Innovations, Vol. 10 (2022), Issue 2, pg(s) 71-75

    The study addresses to an economic comparison of two proposed wind farms in the same area in Mamaj, Albania, respectively 10.8 MW and 12.6 MW. The 12.6 MW wind farm proposed is predicted to produce 34 GWh energy, with a capacity factor of 30.8%, while the 10.8 MW wind farm is predicted to produce 30.4 GWh, with a capacity factor of 32%. For the 12.6 MW wind farm since there is a higher installed power, is expected to produce more energy, but referring that they will be built in same area, the wake losses will indicate in overall efficiency of the wind farm. The wake losses calculated for the 10.8 MW wind farm are 0.98%, meantime for the 12.6 MW wind farm wake losses is calculated 2.58%, means that the overall efficiency of the 10.8 MW wind farms is higher. For the economic evaluation RETScreen Expert software is used. With a discount rate of 7%, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.9 and simple payback period 7.6 years for 10.8MW wind farm, and for the 12.6 MW the benefit-cost ratio is calculated 2.6, with a simple payback year of 8 years.


    Solar Energy an Instrument for Reducing High Electricity Prices in Industry Sector in Albania

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 7 (2022), Issue 4, pg(s) 142-146

    The research focus addresses to installation of PV modules in industry sector in Albania. Due to energy crises, the prices are going higher and with the new regulations that are defined by Albanian government, businesses that are connected to 20kV, 10kV, 6kV transmission lines must secure the energy supply by their selves in open market, since a part of price was covered by government, now companies are facing higher prices. The new price is expected to increase more than 70%, up to 0.16 €/kWh from 0.092 €/kWh. Also, companies that will be in the open market will face price volatilities, hence with the installation of PV modules, reduction of electricity price is possible, since the LCOE (levelized cost of electricity) for the PV in Albania, including 20% VAT tax, is calculated around 0.035 €/kWh. To calculate the effect in electricity price a simulation using RETScreen Expert is performed. The simulations are made for a company connected to a 20kV electricity transmission line where an on-grid PV system 217.28 kW power installed is integrated on the roof. The PV modules covers 52.4% of the company electricity demand, by generating 286055 kWh electricity yearly from which 68% of electricity generated from PV is consumed by the company and 32% is exported to grid because company works 8 h/day and there is not an electricity storage system installed. With the price increment from 0.092 €/kWh to 0.16 €/kWh, the total earnings from PV installed system will be increased by an average 65.3% and if the electricity price in the open market is doubled the total earnings will be increased by an average 85.3%.


    Energy audit analysis in private residential apartment in Tirana city

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 7 (2022), Issue 2, pg(s) 79-82

    Recently, Albania as a developing country is focusing on the energy efficiency in residential and industry sector. Residential sector has very high contribution energy consumption in Albania due to many construction buildings without energy efficiency standards implementation. Most of the contribute city is Tirana where energy consumption in residential sector is very high in comparison to the other cities in Albania. Our research work will be focused on analysis of the energy audit on a private residence apartment which is located in the area of Tirana. The purpose of this paper is based on the relevant standards and norms to give appropriate recommendations for the implementation of energy efficiency which would increase the energy performance of this building.


    An evaluation of wind energy potential in Topoja area, Albania.

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 7 (2022), Issue 1, pg(s) 21-25

    Climate change and efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, have significantly increased interest globally in implementing technologies utilising renewable energy sources such as wind energy. This rise in interest it also in countries in which there is a lack of data showing longitudinal measures of wind speed. Balkan Wind Atlas was developed from Sander&Partner Institute in October 2014. It offers wind maps that are suitable to identify the windiest areas covering a surface of 325 000 km2 and a database for secured planning of wind energy for Albania, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia. This study investigated the high level of consistency of empirical wind measurements conducted on-site, compared to the ones offered in Balkan Wind Atlas. We also explore the ways of utilising the atlas through the WasP software to study wind potencial even in those areas where there are no on-site measurements, thus lowering costs for investments in wind farm projects. The evaluation of the wind energy potential in Topoja area was taken as a case study.


    Wind power perspective in Albania under CO2 credit rate initative. Case study: Qafë-Thanë, Pogradec

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 6 (2021), Issue 3, pg(s) 110-113

    Renewable energy sources (RES) will continue to play a key role in the process of deep decarbonisation of the energy sector especially in the power branch. Effects of environmental, economic, social, political and technical factors condition the rapid deployment of various sources of renewable energy-based power generation. In this case study the optional GHG reduction credit per equivalent tonne of CO2 (tCO2) used in conjunction with the net GHG reduction to calculate the annual GHG reduction revenue of a 27MW wind farm located in Qafë-Thanë, Pogradec-Albania is analysed. As the future availability of renewable energy resources is not affected by their use, wind power can address many questions related to sustainability and flexibility of the existing fuel powered technologies. Hence, cutting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Albania should be fully in line with the Paris Agreement including power sector especially. The proposed action aims at developing a high-level promotion and market penetration strategy for RES, contributing to the mitigation of GHG in EU as well as in the candidate countries including Albania. Furthermore, special support should be given to candidate countries in creating policies and programmes to facilitate and promote RES technologies.


    CO2 credit reduction rate impact on the economy of the 27MW wind power farm Case study: Qafë-Thanë, Pogradec

    Innovations, Vol. 9 (2021), Issue 3, pg(s) 100-104

    This work is focused on CO2 credit rate impact application as one of the most feasible technology to make the wind turbines cost effective for power generation. Wind energy is clean, infinite and environment friendly source of energy. However, wind energy systems, alone or hybrid systems have a high potential to reduce CO2 emissions, fuel and total cost of the system compared to the other options applied historically in power sector. Such systems are foreseen to play a key role in a stable, costless and emission-less way especially in large scale applications. The performance, availability, costs and carbon intensity of wind power indicate that CO2 credit rate can make a very substantial contribution to reduce carbon emissions and gain the security of investment of RES technologies. The other options applied would deliver only partial emission reductions, therefore, are not sufficient to attain the 2030 national energy goals so they have to rely on renewable energy technologies. Policy makers and interest parties/investors need to focus unerringly on scaling up the actual developed few options consistent with reaching the zero-emission goal.


    Off-grid hybrid PV configuration’s role to supply internet access points antenna in remote areas. Case study: “Ostren i vogël – trebisht” villages, Bulqiza district, Albania

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 5 (2020), Issue 5, pg(s) 218-226

    As a result of the global pandemic situation COVID-19 many rural areas in Albania are suffering and will more especially the lack of internet services have engaged in development and cultivation of knowledge in the education sector, responsible in building a safer and more caring community. Even more Albania is indexed as a European country that still continue to experience the lowest rate userpenetration of internet especially in remotes areas. Despite its widespread use in urban areas, a very significant portion of the rural population still isn’t connected to the internet. Immigration of the population from rural toward more urbanized areas and lack of reliable electricity supply and infrastructure are the main problems that hinder investors to offer internet services in remote regions. The performance analysis of a solar PV power plant is important aspect as far as concern with technology and economic analysis. Due to seasonal variation standalone system can’t provide a continuous power supply. Therefore, in recent years PV energy systems that combine solar energy and other conventional conversion units are becoming promising more popular, efficient to fulfill load demand and representing a cost-effective technology.


    Off-grid hybrid PV plants used to supply autonomuos internet base stations supporting the mitigation of GHG in Albania. Case study: Bulqiza district, Albania

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 5 (2020), Issue 4, pg(s) 174-178

    This work is focused to an off-grid PV-Genset-battery application as one of the most feasible technology to power internet access points antennas enabling to reduce GHG-s. Solar energy is clean, infinite and environment friendly source of energy. Remote areas especially in northern part of Albania is facing difficulties to the connection to the national electricity grid. Primarily diesel generators (Genset) are used for electricity power supply leading to negative effects into the surrounding. However, hybrid energy systems, such as PVGenset-battery systems have a high potential to reduce CO2 emissions, fuel costs and total cost of the system compared to the other options applied historically in telecommunication sector in Albania. Such systems are foreseen to play a key role in a stable, costless and emissionless way especially in off-grid applications. The performance, availability, costs and carbon intensity of photovoltaic power all indicate that this technology can make a very substantial contribution to reduce carbon emissions and gain carbon credits.


    The wind gusts effects on human body based on cfd simulations

    Trans Motauto World, Vol. 5 (2020), Issue 4, pg(s) 138-142

    In this paper, the impact of wind forces on human bodies is shown. Like many meteorological phenomena, the influence of wind energy applied to human bodies is inevitable which comes into the spotlight of the scientist only when the wind becomes violent and extremely disturbing. Based on weather and observations in February 2019, abnormal wind characteristics in Albania are evidenced. On February 23, 2019, a very special situation in the Northern part of Albania, the region of Puka, with extreme values of wind parameters causing the phenomenon of “wind gust”, leading to a series of material damage and loss of human life, is evidenced. Researchers and predictors need scientific information on the impact of strong winds applied on the human body for specific conditions. Wind speed values in this region of the northern part of our country set records reaching extremely values (30 ÷ 35) ms-1 on the ground level. Taking a cue from this unprecedented situation, the effect of strong winds on the determination of aerodynamic forces acting on the human body using numerical simulations has been studied and so far, well investigated. For this study, we considered a human body with a height of 172cm. The investigation takes into account two different positions against the wind, frontal and lateral position traversed by wind speeds levels of 20m/s, 30m/s, and 40 m/s. The study concluded that strong winds can exhibit unimaginable and unaffordable forces, leading to fatal consequences for human life.