New regulations on the formaldehyde emission from wood-based panels

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 16 (2022), Issue 8, pg(s) 293-295

    Formaldehyde is considered a health hazard, hence the wood-based panels must be within the limits imposed by the strictest regulations regarding the formaldehyde release. New national and international international regulations of formaldehyde emission from wood-based panels widely used in furniture industry were investigated in this study. The results of the study can be useful for the woodbased panel factories to follow the standards and regulations in terms of formaldehyde emission.


    Recent developments and regulations in fire resistance of wood and wood-based composites

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 16 (2022), Issue 7, pg(s) 260-262

    This study focused on the fire-retardant treatment of wood and wood-based composites using various methods. The recent developments in the fire-retardant standards and classification of wood and wood-based composites were reviewed. Most commonly used fire-retardants and commercial application methods of fire retardants such as boron compounds and phosphates to improve fire resistance of wood and wood based composites were explained. Furthermore, fire-retardant mechanism was informed. Novel nanomaterials used in the fire resistance of wood and wood-based composites were introduced. Significant criteria in choosing of the suitable fire retardants for wood and wood-based composites were explained


    Use of oriented strandboard in construction industry

    Innovations, Vol. 10 (2022), Issue 2, pg(s) 93-96

    In recent years, 3D printing has gradually appeared in people’s field of vision. The addition of wood in thermoplastics improve their some mechanical properties such as tensile and bending modulus without affecting its biodegradability. The decrease in the cost of filaments may enlarge the utilization of biodegradable filaments after the disposal in near future. Small-scale elements used in furniture production, such as connector fittings or fasteners for shelves, may give functional and structural properties without significant investment. 3D-printed connections are suitable when the the production complex shaped connectors and quick disassembly are required, to reduce the product’s weight and price


    Effect of Overlay Paper Properties on the Surface Quality of Laminate Flooring

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 16 (2022), Issue 6, pg(s) 199-201

    In this study, the effect of overlay paper properties on the surface quality of laminate flooring was investigated. For this aim, only the upper surface of 22 gr/m² raw overlay papers impregnated with 53% melamine formaldehyde resin in the glue pool was sprinkled by corundum (Al2O3) in two different ratios (23 and 28 gr/m²) from different companies at 140-160 ºC. In the drying ovens, the impregnated overlay papers with a final weight of 135 and 140 gr/m² and a humidity of 7.5% were produced. The panels obtained at the end of these processes were tested according to TS-EN 14323 and related standards, which are surface quality features such as surface abrasion, surface scratch and ash test. According to the test results, it has been observed that under the same pressing conditions, different corundum type and amount as well as laminate floorings covered with overlay papers with different final weights have an effect on the surface quali ty properties. It was observed that although the increase in the amount of corundum did not have a significant effect on surface scratching, it had a significant effect on surface wear values. According to the results of the ash test, it was observed that the amount of corundum increased and its distribution on the overlay paper surface was homogeneous.


    Effect of Using Rock Wool on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Oriented Strandboard (OSB)

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 7 (2022), Issue 3, pg(s) 102-104

    In this study, the effect of using different ratios of rock wool on the mechanical and physical properties of OSB (Oriented strandboard) boards, according to the place of use and properties of OSB. For this purpose, 18 mm x1220 mm x2440 mm (control, A1, A2, A3) at a density of 600 kg/m³ using rock wool in three different (10-20-30%) ratios, in proportion to the weight of the middle layer of the chipboard obtained from 100% maritime pine (Pinus maritima) wood. OSB/2 test boards were produced. OSB/2 test boards obtained as a result of using different proportions of rock wool were tested according to the relevant standards. According to the test results, when the mechanical and physical properties (tensile strength in the vertical direction, bending resistance, modulus of elasticity, swelling properties and free formaldehyde values) are compared with the control board, it has been determined that 10-20% rock wool can be used in the production of OSB/2 boards to be used as insulation board. Accordingly, rock wool reinforced composite OSB boards can be preferred as insulation boards in the wood panel industry.


    Recent applications of nanoparticles in wood-based panels

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 15 (2021), Issue 7, pg(s) 287-290

    Nanocellulose applications in the wood-based panels have gained a great deal in the scientific researches and industrial applications. Utilization of natural and synthetic nanoparticles as reinforcement in the wood-based panels has considerably increased in the last two decades due to their unique properties. The main property of the nanocellulose is its very high surface area. Hereby, the very small use of nanoparticles suh as %1-2 wt% in the composites is enough at a relatively low-cost. Nanoparticles are presently considered to be high-potential reinforcing fillers for the enhancement of the physical, mechanical, electrical/electronic properties, thermal resistivity, fire, durability properties of wood-based panels such as particleboard, fibreboard, oriendted strandboard, and plywood. The nanoparticles are applied to wood based panels dur ing the manufacture and after production. The raw materials such as wood or resin can be treated with nanoparticles or the finished panels can be treated with nanoparticles. In this study, the recent developments in the nano particles, their applications in the wood based panels, and their effects on the panel properties were reviewed


    Advances in reducing formaldehyde emission from wood-based panels

    Innovations, Vol. 9 (2021), Issue 4, pg(s) 151-153

    Formaldehyde emission is one of important issues in the wood-based panel industry. Recently, many countries tighten regulations on formaldehyde emissions emitted from wood-based panels due to harmful effect of formaldehyde on the humans. Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin is the most used synthetic resin as binder in the production of wood-based panels for indoor applications. Disadvantages of UF resin are the formaldehyde emission and low water resistance. UF resin is classified according to the formaldehyde releases, Super E0, E0, E1, and E2, which are from lowest to highest, respectively. Many researchers have focused on the synthetic and natural formaldehyde scavengers for decreasing the formaldehyde emission from the wood-based panels. In this study, recent studies for reducing formaldehyde emission from wood-based boards were reviewed.


    Effects of various fire retardants on mechanical and fire properties of plywood

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 14 (2020), Issue 7, pg(s) 292-295

    Effects of various fire retardant (FR) chemicals on mechanical and fire properties of plywoods were investigated. Boron compounds such as, borax and boric acid; and phospate compounds such as, monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phospahate were used as fire retardant chemicals in the plywood panels. An exterior liquid phenol formaldehyde resin with 47% solids content was used as adhesive. The 2.2 mm thick Tetraberlina wood veneers were treated with the liquid solution of FR chemicals. The plywoods having 5-layers were produced from the treated wood veneers. The mechanical properties of the plywoods produced with treated veneers was found to be lower than that of the control group. Among the treated plywoods, The plywoods treated with borax had highest mechanical properties, followed by diammonium phosphate (DAP), monoammonimum phosphate (MAP), and, boric acid, respectively. The FR chemicals improved the fire resistance of the plywoods. The chemicals showed individually different effects related to improvement of fire resistance of the panels. For example, the OSB panels treated with diammonium phoshate were the latest ignited group (52.8 s) which were followed by the panels treated with boric acid (49.2 s), borax (44.5 s), and monoammonium phosphate (41.2 s), respectively. As compared to the control group (7.5 cm), the plywoods treated with borax (3.6 cm) had the shortest flame length after burner was turn off, followed by diammonium phosphate (4.2 cm), boric acid (5.1 cm), and monoammonium phosphate (5.8 cm).


    Fabrication, structure and use of nanocellulose as reinforcement in polymer composites

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 14 (2020), Issue 7, pg(s) 283-287

    Nanocellulose is defined as term refers to the cellulosic materials with defined nano-scale structural dimensions. Nanocellulose can be mainly categorized into three main types; nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), and bacterial nanocellulose (BNC). The special attention is the size of nanocellulose fiber which generally contains less than 100 nm in diameter and several micrometers in length. The NCCs have very attractive fundamental properties such as high strength and stiffness, low density, biodegradability, transparency, and extremely low thermal expansion property. They have extremely strong mechanical properties, e.g., a Young’s modulus of 130-140 GPa. As a results of the recent developments in the nanotechnology in the last deceade, nanocellulose has garnered much attention for its use in biocomposites, biofilms, medicine, coatings, thermoplastic and thermosetting resins. The production cost of nanocellulose is gradually decrasing due to increasing utilization by many industries all over the world. In this study, structure of use of nanocellulose and its use in polymer composites was reviewed.