Justification of the improved technological process and development of the construction of the cleaner of root tubers from impurities

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2022), Issue 3, pg(s) 91-93

    The paper presents a new construction of a root ball cleaner from impurities, consisting of five wave-shaped working spirals, which are given oscillatory movements with appropriate amplitudes and frequencies in the longitudinal-vertical plane. It allows to considerably expand a working zone of separation of the potato heap arriving on clearing, and it will promote its better dispersion on a working surface of the cleaner, more intensive destruction of ground clods, and consequently, improvement of sifting of ground and vegetative admixtures and decrease of blocking of working spirals. All this ultimately increases the productivity and quality of the new root crop cleaner from impurities. To carry out experimental studies of the new construction of the cleaner of potato roots from impurities, we have developed a laboratory setup, which allows you to test and justify the basic constructional and kinematic parameters of this cleaner. The process of cleaning of root crops from soil impurities and plant residues indicated cleaner is due to the movement of the heap coils cantilevered spiral springs, which rotate at a certain angular velocity, and the oscillatory motion of the springs themselves, arising from the deflection of their longitudinal axes. In this case, soil and plant impurities are sifted through the separating gaps and coils of spirals, and the bodies of potatoes are transported by coils of spirals in the direction of the unloading conveyor. Calculations of the required power for the drive of the laboratory unit showed that it does not exceed 1.3 kW.


    Study of the oscillation processes of a front-mounted haulm harvester when it moves on the inequalities of the ground surface

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2022), Issue 3, pg(s) 86-90

    In the article the calculated mathematical model of oscillations of the haulm-harvesting machine frontally attached to a wheeled tractor is constructed. A nonlinear differential equation is obtained, which describes the oscillations of a haulm-harvesting machine in the longitudinal-vertical plane during the movement of its pneumatic copying wheels along the unevenness of the soil surface. On the basis of the received theoretical results rational constructive and kinematic parameters of the front-mounted hoisting machine which provide decrease in amplitude of the specified fluctuations are defined. So, at translational speed of movement of the haulm-harvesting unit V = 3.0 m∙s–1, the amplitude of oscillations of the rotor of the haulm harvester decreases in 1.2…1.5 times in comparison with height of roughnesses of a surface of the field o h = ± 0.04 m. At the amplitude of oscillations of the lower ends of the knives of the rotary cutting device up to 4 cm, the loss of the tip does not increase significantly. However, when increasing the values of the amplitude of these oscillations to 7 cm or more, the loss of the branch increases significantly and the maximum values of which exceed 12%.


    Theoretical investigation of the removal of halfrums from sugar beet root heads

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2022), Issue 2, pg(s) 75-78

    Removal of the haulm from the heads of sugar beet to the roots during their harvesting (cutting the main mass) or separation of its residues (when finishing the heads) is a complex technological process associated with either a significant loss of sugar-bearing mass (low cut), or not complete removal of residues (high cut), which significantly degrades the quality of root crops. Therefore, ways to find a complete removal of haulm and its residues from the heads of root crops require research and development of such devices capable of performing this process qualitatively. However, first it is necessary to determine theoretically and experimentally the basic initial conditions under which high quality indicators will be achieved, and losses of sugar-bearing mass during cutting the haulm will be minimal, with the remaining haulm being as small as possible (or they will be absent at all). This paper theoretically and experimentally investigates and determines the loss of sugar mass and remnants of the bud on the heads of sugar beet roots during the separation of the bud and its remnants. It is established that in the interval of working heights of a cut which is equal to 20 … 60 mm deviation of theoretical calculations from experimental does not exceed on the average 1%.


    Development of mathematical model of plane-parallel movement of trailer harvesting machine

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2022), Issue 2, pg(s) 53-56

    This paper presents the basic principles of building a mathematical model of trailer harvesting, for which an example of a trailed combine harvester is considered. To develop this mathematical model, all the components are given, starting with the assembly of an equivalent scheme of plane-parallel movement of this harvesting unit, which consists of a wheeled aggregate tractor of classic layout and trailed behind the combine. And behind the combine is attached a cart for the harvest. Differential equations of relative motion of the collecting unit are compiled and solved on the basis of the Lagrange equation of the second kind.


    Investigation the process of soil seeding during cleaning of rootbull fruits by spiral type cleaner

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2022), Issue 2, pg(s) 41-44

    Cleaning of root crop bodies from impurities during their digging from the soil is a complex and energy-consuming technological process. Therefore, the development of new types of cleaners of root crop pile from impurities, in particular spiral type cleaners, allowing to intensify this process and improve the quality of cleaning is a step to successfully overcome this problem. The paper presents a study of the technological process of sifting soil particles during the cleaning of the heap of root crops with a spiral-type cleaner. In particular, a calculated mathematical model was constructed, which reflects the movement along the spiral of the body cleaner (soil particles) of variable mass. Using the differential equation of volume change, the differential equation of mass change, i.e. the mass that is sifted through the coils of the spiral cleaner was compiled. Based on the theoretical study, it was found that many factors influence the intensity of soil sifting on the spiral separator – the initial mass of particles, the design dimensions of the cleaner, frictional properties of the surface, angular parameters of body placement on the spiral surface and angular velocity of the spiral roller rotation, and the intensity of these parameters has been studied. Using PC, graphical dependences of the intensity of soil sieving on the angle of rotation of the cleaning spiral when changing the angular velocity of the spiral were constructed.