Industry 4.0, Vol. 5 (2020), Issue 1, pg(s) 10-13

    Monitoring and control of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) have many challenges related to the heterogeneous environment, the high degree of interaction between the components and the high requirements for functionality and scale. The paper presents an analysis of the state of the art in this area and proposes and analyses different combined approaches for control of CPS based on IEC-61499 standard. The approaches are divided in two groups. The first group of approaches combines IEC-61499 standard with advanced methods of software engineering, such as formal methods and model-driven development, based on UML/SysML. The second group uses other standards as IEC- 61512 and PLCopen to be combined with IEC-61499 standard in order to improve the development lifecycle of cyber-physical systems.


    Reference framework and architecture for development of cyber-physical systems

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 4 (2019), Issue 5, pg(s) 212-215

    The strategic initiative Industry 4.0 implies integration of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing, leading to what is called “smart factory”. The lack of theoretical foundation and methodologies creates barriers that may hamper the adoption, commercialization, and market success of the new CPS applications. The reference frameworks and architectures support the analysis and specification of domains, and facilitates the unification of methods used by various disciplines such as industrial engineering, control theory, communication and information technology, thus making possible their combined use. The paper presents an analysis of the benefits and use of reference frameworks and architectures in the development of CPS. Standardized meta-models of reference frameworks and architectures are presented. Particular attention is paid to the NIST reference framework and architecture of CPS, with a view to establishing a methodology for development of Cyber-Physical Production Systems.

  • Standards for monitoring and control of cyber-physical systems

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 4 (2019), Issue 1, pg(s) 3-6

    The Industry 4.0 initiative imposes new requirements on cyber-physical systems in terms of interoperability, response time, communication capabilities, and more. A major approach to addressing these requirements is through the development and use of standard reference frameworks, architectures and models as well as the widespread and joint application of open industry standards. The aim of the article is to analyze the use of standards under the Fourth Industrial Revolution as well as to present and analyze some of the most applied standards in the field of monitoring and control of cyber-physical systems, such as AutomationML, OPC-UA, IEC-61449, IEC-61512. The reference architecture RAMI 4.0 was used to establish relationships and interactions between them.