• MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Investigation of the power interaction of the ploughshare digger working body with the soil and sugar beet root for the conditions of its vibratory digging

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 5, pg(s) 154-156

    the basic principles of the theory of interaction of the vibrating digging working body with the body of the root crop fixed in the soil at vibrating digging of sugar beets are developed. The force interaction of ploughshare diggers with the soil is considered in the work. The values of normal soil reactions acting on the ploughshare of the excavating working body are determined, which, when vibrating in the longitudinal-vertical plane, can dig out the bodies of sugar beet roots from the soil. Based on the obtained equations describing this process, the prerequisites for finding the kinematic and structural parameters of the excavating working body are developed.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Construction of a new calculation mathematical model of the vibration process of excavation of the root body from the soil, taking into account its elastic damping properties

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 4, pg(s) 123-128

    The equation of shock interaction of the vibrating digging working body with the body of the sugar beet root, fixed in the soil, which occurs in the process of vibratory digging of the roots, is made. Based on the shock interaction equation, the shock pulse and the maximum shock force that occur during this interaction were determined, which allowed to further assess the degree of damage and knocking out of root heads in the process of vibration digging of sugar beet. From the conditions of non-damage of root crops the expression for definition of admissible frequency of fluctuations of the vibrating digging working body taking into account its design parameters and translational speed of movement of the beet harvester is received. Based on the obtained equations describing this process, the optimal values of the kinematic and structural parameters of the working plow for vibration digging of sugar beets are found.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Experimental research of agricultural bridge unit in the state of harrow aggregate

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 3, pg(s) 97-99

    From the standpoint of energy saving, the issue of research of agro-bridge units in the composition of new agricultural lands adapted to them is important and relevant tools that operate on the principles of track and bridge farming. One of the latter is a heavy tooth harrow with flat segments. Experimental determination of the characteristics of the agronomic bridge harrowing unit in its composition, in order to establish compliance of its parameters with the basic principles of the effective implementation of track and bridge farming, was adopted as a research objective. Experimental research was carried out both according to generally accepted and developed methods, and provided for the use of modern strain gauge and control equipment with analog-digital conversion of signals from information sensors. The processing of experimental data was carried out on a PC using probability theory, regression, and correlation-spectral analysis. Physical objects of researches were wide-track agricultural bridge construction vehicle TDATU with its track width of 3.5 m and harrowing machine (BZSS-1.0 type). According to the results of experimental tests of agricultural bridge harrowing unit as part of the dental harrow proved its good adaptability to work in the units of track and bridge farming and high quality of the technological process. The latter is also a consequence of the fact that the movement of the agricultural bridge is carried out on the compacted traces of a constant tramline, whose roughness profile is low-frequency in comparison with the longitudinal profile of the harrower. The constructive version of the tooth harrow is well reflected in the nature of its unevenness in traction resistance. It is established that the fluctuations of the harrow’s traction resistance express a random function in which there are no harmonic components. The coefficient of variation of resistance fluctuations on the hook of the agricultural bridge during harrowing is no more than 10%. The latter indicates a high stability (low variability) of the process of harrowing the soil, has a positive impact on the stable movement of the agricultural bridge unit.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Substantiation of the process of deep tillage with agricultural machines of digging type

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 3, pg(s) 86-89

    The paper considers the issue of deep tillage, the use of the latest technical advances, in order to develop new tillage implements that provide better tillage and reduce erosion. The main attention is paid to the preservation of soil fertility and the use of funds in organic farming. The aim of the work is to improve the process of mechanical tillage by digging by developing a new working body and the process of interaction of digging working bodies with the soil, which change its physical properties and improve environmental safety. The most promising for deep tillage is the digger in terms of both energy and agronomic indicators (reduction of compaction, preservation and restoration of water and air balance, preservation of humus, preservation of biomass). Rotary diggers with rotational movement of working bodies are more effective in comparison with diggers having oscillating movement of working bodies. As a result of studying the dependence of the angle of the blades, providing the movement of the formation on the surface of the working body, from their position on the trajectory, it was found that the smallest value (5…70) is the angle of inclination after turning the blade deepening. When lifting the formation from the bottom of the furrow to a certain height, the required angle of the blades increases, reaching a value of 28… 300 when overturning the formation at a height of 0.20…0.25 m

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Study of specialized wide-rail agriculture unit for rail farming

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 2, pg(s) 59-62

    A promising direction for further sustainable development of agriculture not only in Ukraine but also in the world is the introduction of innovative technologies, which should include the track and bridge systems of agriculture. These systems provide the basis for the automation and robotization of most crop production processes, ensure efficient implementation of “precision” and “digital” farming and provide other significant benefits. Scientists have not sufficiently studied the issue in this regard, and there is currently no effective methodology for implementing the potential technical-operational and technological properties of specialized broad gauge means of agricultural production mechanization for the rutting system of agriculture. Therefore, from the point of view of solving the food problem in the world, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as developing resource-saving technologies based on the principles of the rutting system of agriculture, in accordance with the trends of scientific and technological progress in the field of mechanization – improving the level of functioning of technical means through integrated mechanization, electrification, automation and robotization – this direction of research is relevant. The aim of the research is to substantiate the main advantages and effectiveness of the use of a specialized vehicle for rutting agriculture by justifying its main parameters. As a result of these studies, it was found that the energy saturation level of specialized agricultural vehicles moving in the tracks of a permanent technological track should be 23.5 kW·t−1, in realizing the traction force at the level of 6.37 kN by 1t of their weight. Losses of the field area for the engineering zone when using agricultural equipment with a wheelbase width exceeding 6 m are 5-6%. The economic effect of the use of broad-wheeled agents in wheat cultivation technology is at least 150 € per hectare.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Assessment of negative impact of agricultural mobile energy means and euro-5 standard

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 2, pg(s) 50-54

    Environmental problems today are one of the most important and global indicators of human development. One of the consequences of the impact of agricultural machinery on natural resources is their pollution due to loss of fuel and lubricants and engine waste. The purpose of the research is to develop scientific and methodological bases for the selection of criteria for assessing the environmental safety of the diesel engine of an energy vehicle with the creation of an environmental safety management system. The scientific and methodological basis for assessing these factors is a systematic approach to solving environmental problems that arise during the operation of machine-tractor units and other agricultural energy resources. Estimation of the level of emissions of the main pollutants and toxic substances in exhaust gases can be defined by means of the regulatory characteristic of the engine depending on an operating mode of this engine. The optimal mode of operation of the engine YaMZ-236M2, from an environmental point of view, adopted 1450…1850 rpm. In this case, fuel consumption does not increase in this mode. It is possible to reduce the emissions of the most significant NOx exhaust element by limiting the engine speed to 90% of the nominal. CO and CH emissions at a given engine speed have not reached their maximum value.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Justification of kinematic parameters of coupling for wide-span row-crop unit

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 5, pg(s) 156-158

    Effective use of the KhTZ-160 tractor is possible, with the specified width, combining the implementation of the main technological process with an additional, i.e. sowing with cultivation. Shows the results of calculations of the transverse displacements of the working bodies as a function of their placement along the width of unit and along its length relative to the transverse geometric axis that passes through the kinematic the center of the tractor without taking into account the curvature of the trajectory of tractor and possible changes in the position of kinematic center along the unit. The largest values of the transverse displacements of the working bodies, which are placed at a distance of 2.6 m, i.e. at the machine which is attached to the rear hinged system of the tractor, reach 14.5 cm at maximum angles of rotation of the unit (3 degrees). The smallest transverse movements of the working bodies are observed when placed on a geometric axis that passes through the axis of the rear wheels (less than 1 cm). The lateral movements of working bodies of 18-row wide-coverage row-crop unit depending on the tractor turning angle and their placement in the unit are considered. Kinematic parameters and coupling scheme are recommended.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Propagation of the least (minimum) quasi-periodic wave in a double-periodic plate

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 3, pg(s) 93-94

    There is a method examined for studying propagation of waves in a double-periodic plate, based on the application of the boundary element method. By means of this method “transparency windows” were found for a wave that propagates in a direction perpendicular to the diagonal of the elementary period of the system

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Problems of production and use of hydroponic products in agricultural production

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 2, pg(s) 72-73

    Production of hydroponic green fodder is an important task of agriculture, which in developed countries is given enough attention. Currently, the world’s developed a considerable number of various designs installations for the production of hydroponic products, but the main working body of these installations are trays in which the cultivation of hydroponic green fodder, as one of the most simple, but fairly effective devices for seeding, cultivation and the ready products. The main global trends in the production of hydroponic green fodder, as one of the components of the diet of poultry and cattle, are considered. The paper analyzes the operation of the workshops for the production of hydroponic products equipped with the facilities of the new design developed by us. Compared some economic characteristics of hydroponic workshops manufactured in foreign countries and developed in Ukraine. Thus, the conclusion is obvious – domestic plants for the production of hydroponic green fodder are more economical than their foreign counterparts.

  • INNOVATION POLICY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT

    Increasing and justification of demand for the modernization of agricultural machinery

    Innovations, Vol. 7 (2019), Issue 3, pg(s) 105-114

    The paper presents a technical and economic background to the need for modernization of modern tractors and combines. The presented method allows forecasting the demand for modernization of equipment. It allows to develop the program of action to improve the quality of machines, assess their real potential, develop of strategic and operational planning for the development of modernization, organize activities of the technical service. This article proposes a method for determining the demand for modernization of agricultural machinery in technical, repair and technical enterprises, based on the analysis of statistical and expert data characterizing their influence on the demand for research. It is justified that repair company must confidently organize an active advertising campaign to promote modernized machines to the market.

  • MACHINES

    Development of theory of the drive of stationary agricultural machines with lever mechanisms

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 13 (2019), Issue 6, pg(s) 252-253

    The improvement of the efficiency of agricultural machines of a modern technical level can be achieved when new methods of the theory of mechanisms and machines are used during calculations and design of their working bodies and in general of machine aggregates. The task of the research was to develop a new algorithm for solving the second problem of dynamics of lever mechanisms with electric drive, which are used in modern agricultural machines A new algorithm for solving the second problem of dynamics of lever mechanisms of agricultural machines equipped with an electric drive has been developed. The algorithm finds application in calculations of flat lever mechanisms of stationary agricultural machines.

  • Study of special aspects of hitching to wide span tractors (vehicles)

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 4, pg(s) 111-113

    The paper presents the research into the specific aspects of hitching agricultural machines and implements to wide span tractors (vehicles). According to the results of the performed investigations, the redistribution of the normal reaction forces on the tractor’s front and rear wheels depends to a significant extent not only on the inclination of the hitch links of the wide span tractor (vehicle), but also on such design parameters as the distance from the linkage to the centre of resistance and the carrier wheel of the agricultural machine or implement. In order to exclude in practical terms completely the effect of the machines’ running gear compacting the soil in the yielding (agronomic) zones of the field, it is recommended to implement on the wide span tractors (vehicles) the controlling devices that allow adjusting the normal vertical load on the agricultural machine or implement’s carrying wheels. Such controlling devices can operate on the principle of the known weight transfer traction boosters used in conventional tractors.