The key role of the United States in Polish security policy makes the Polish authorities strive for possibly close allied relations with the US. In order to consolidate the allied bond and increase the defense and deterrence capabilities against Russia, Poland proposed building a permanent base for the US Armed Forces on its territory in the strength of a division. This project was too ambitious and for this reason it was impossible to implement in the current political and military conditions. The main reason was the concern about escalating tensions on the NATO-Russia line. There was also no inter-alliance agreement around the project, and some NATO countries openly opposed the “Fort Trump” concept. Experts were not convinced that the permanent stationing of a large group of American forces in Poland would be the most effective solution to the current threats. For these reasons, “Fort Trump” was not created, and the decisions made to increase the American military presence in Poland were much less ambitious than the proposals and expectations of the Polish authorities.
- LETA/TBT Staff, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine appeal to Russia over Georgia, "The Baltic Times", 8 August 2018, https://www.baltictimes.com/poland__lithuania__latvia__ukraine_appeal_to_russia_over_georgia/.
- Banasik, M., Fort Trump as a Chance for Security in Europe, "Rocznik Bezpieczeństwa Międzynarodowego" 2019, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 45, 48.
- Ministry of National Defence Republic of Poland, Proposal for a U.S. Permanent Presence in Poland, Warsaw 2018, https://www.politico.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Proposal-for-a-U.S.-Permanent-Presence-in-Poland-2018.pdf.
- Vershbow, A. R., P. M. Breedlove, Permanent deterrence: Enhancements to the US military presence in North Central Europe, 7 February 2020, https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/in-depth-research-reports/report/permanent-deterrence/;
- Fabian, B., M. Gunzinger, J. van Tol, J. Cohn, G. Evans, Strengthening the Defense of NATO’s Eastern Frontier, 13 March 2013, https://csbaonline.org/research/publications/strengthening-the-defense-of-natos-eastern-frontier/publication/1;
- Taylor, P. “Fort Trump” or Bust? Poland and the Future of European Defence, 21 Jan 2019, https://www.friendsofeurope.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/FORT-TRUMP-OR-BUST-Poland-and-the-future-of-European-defence.pdf;
- Feickert, A., K. J. McInnis, D. E. Mix, U.S. Military Presence in Poland, 2 July 2020, https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/IF11280.pdf;
- Deni, J. R., Rotational Deployments vs. Forward Stationing: How Can the Army Achieve Assurance and Deterrence Efficiently and Effectively?, United States Army War College Press: Carlise, August 2017, https://publications.armywarcollege.edu/pubs/3359.pdf;
- Doran, P. B., R. Wojcik, Unfinished Business. Why and How the U.S. Should Establish a Permanent Military Presence on NATO’s Eastern Flank, November 2018,
- Lopinot, Q., ‘Fort Trump?’-Is There Added Value to a Permanent U.S. Military Base in Poland?, 19 November 2019, https://www.csis.org/analysis/fort-trump%E2%80%94-there-added-value-permanent-us-military-base-poland;
- Hodges, B., Don’t put US bases in Poland, „Politico”, 4 June 2018, https://www.politico.eu/article/dont-put-us-bases-in-poland/.
- Wadhams, N., J. Jacobs, President Trump Reportedly Wants Allies to Pay Full Cost of Hosting U.S. Troops Abroad 'Plus 50%', „The Time”, 8 March 2019, https://time.com/5548013/trump-allies-pay-cost-plus-50-troops/.
- Plucinska, J. I. Ali, U.S.-Polish Fort Trump project crumbles, „Reuters”, 10 June 2020, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-poland-usa-defense-forttrump/u-s-polish-fort-trump-project-crumbles-idUSKBN23H36P.
- U.S. Department of State. Defense Cooperation Agreement Between the United States of America and Poland, Warsaw, 15 August 2020, https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/20-1113-Poland-EDCA.pdf.
- President of Poland, Joint Declaration on Defense Cooperation Regarding the United States Force Posture in the Republic of Poland, Washington D.C., 12 June 2019, https://www.president.pl/en/news/art,1069,joint-declaration-on-defense-cooperation-regarding-us-force-posture-in-the-republic-of-poland.html.