NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY

Comparison of the Kazakhstan and the Uzbekistan counter-terrorism and counterradicalization strategies

  • 1 University of Economics in Bratislava, Slovakia

Abstract

This article compares the measures of two states, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan, competing for the position of regional leader. Elimination of radicalization from the lowest levels of the state is a natural concern of authoritarian governments. Mindful of the threat that religious extremism poses to the stability of authoritarian regimes, they condemn terrorism in all its forms and support the international community’s efforts to fight (Islamist) terrorism together. To ensure stability and national security, the governments of both countries have adopted comprehensive national strategies and action plans to counter radicalization and terrorism. Their common feature is the focus on preventive measures in local communities. However, while Kazakhstan concentrates on addressing the root causes of extremism, a strong emphasis on repressive measures can be identified within the Uzbek strategies. The article examines the limits of cooperation between the leading Central Asian countries as declared in the current legislative acts, highlights how the positions of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan differ and diverge, and the potential to mitigate the risks associated with extremism in Central Asia by strengthening regional cooperation and understanding.

Keywords

References

  1. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2013/224824.htm (accessed July 15, 2023)
  2. https://shorturl.at/hnrv7 (accessed September 03, 2023)
  3. https://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=1013957 (accessed August 30, 2023)
  4. D. Shemratov, CABAR - Central Asian Bureau for Analytical Reporting., Countering Extremism in Kazakhstan: Where Do They Waste Millions? (2020)
  5. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209983.htm (accessed September 27, 2023)
  6. S. Mirziyoyev, President made a speech at a conference dedicated to issues of ensuring social stability, preserving true essence and content of Islamic religion (2017)
  7. M. Rittmann, Uzbekistan: Backsliding on Religious Freedom Promises, HRW (2023)
  8. https://www.state.gov/reports/country-reports-on-terrorism- 2019/ (accessed October 24, 2023)
  9. Zakon Respubliki Uzbekistan, ot 15.12.2000 g. № 167-II, (2000)
  10. https://lex.uz/ru/pdfs/3841963 (accessed August 23, 2023)
  11. Gazeta.uz, Prinjata strategija po protivodejstviju ekstremizmu i terrorizmu (2021)
  12. Regional Cooperation among Central Asian Countries within the framework of the Joint Plan of Action for the Implementation of the United Nations Global Counter- Terrorism Strategy (2022)
  13. ICAO, Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft, 14 September 1963
  14. https://tass.ru/mezhdunarodnaya-panorama/12738765 (accessed October 28, 2023)
  15. https://cis.minsk.by/reestrv2/doc/6800#text (accessed October 10, 2023)
  16. R. Barrett. Beyond The Caliphate: Foreign Fighters and the Threat of Returnees, The Soufan Center, 12-13 (2017)
  17. E. Lemon, Talking Up Terrorism in Central Asia, Kennan Cable, No. 38, 5-6 (2018)
  18. https://shorturl.at/BDIX9 (accessed October 13, 2023)
  19. lex.uz/acts/111457 (accessed October 19, 2023)
  20. https://vk.com/@almaty_din-kak-v-kazahstane-nakazyvaut-za-terrorizm-i-ekstremizm (accessed September 2, 2023)
  21. BBC, Istanbul airport attack: 30 charged including foreigners, https://shorturl.at/jIJKY, 2016)
  22. US Embassy in Uzbekistan, Doklad o pravah čeloveka v Uzbekistane za 2017 god (2017)|
  23. D. Šajmardanova, Ijulʹskie sobytija v Uzbekistane: internet šatdaun i protesty, Landšaft cifrovyh prav i svobod (2023)
  24. A. Kamidola, The Unwomanly Face of Kazakhstan’s Qantar, EUCAM Commentary, No 51, 1-4 (2023)

Article full text

Download PDF