The preparation of XRF tablets with small amounts of samples produced from various synthesis is a challenging operation. Zeolites and other types of samples with minimal volumes are frequently provided for analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Here we present three types of holders made of PLA (polylactic acid) using commercially available 3D printing technology. The employed material is a bioactive thermoplastic aliphatic polyester extracted from renewable resources and is biodegradable. The holders have reduced diameters of the measured area and can accommodate powders, sheets or solid state samples. The holders are basically three-dimensional plastic models that can be designed and printed based on the provided sample. They are low cost and can be easily applied in practice. The design of the first type of holders is targeting powder samples, allowing the reduction of the required amount from 5-10 g per sample to 1 g. The second type of holders aimed the XRF analyses of textile like materials while the third type of design aimed metal alloys. Examples of the use of the holders are the analyses of coins (here 2 leva is shown) and textile samples containing different metals (e.g. zinc).
- B.D.M. Matos, et al., Evaluation of commercially available polylactic acid (PLA) filaments for 3D printing applications. Journal of Thermal Analysis and calorimetry, 137(2): p. 555-562 (2019)..
- J.B. Soares, et al., Analysis of the influence of polylactic acid (PLA) colour on FDM 3D printing temperature and part finishing. Rapid Prototyping Journal, (2018).
- Y. Zhuang, et al., 3D–printing of materials with anisotropic heat distribution using conductive polylactic acid composites. Materials & Design. 126: p. 135-140 (2017).
- S. Li, et al., From brown to colored: polylactic acid composite with micro/nano-structured white spent coffee grounds for three-dimensional printing. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 174: p. 300-308 (2021).
- M.M. Hanon, L. Zsidai, and Q. Ma, Accuracy investigation of 3D printed PLA with various process parameters and different colors. Materials Today: Proceedings. 42: p. 3089-3096 (2021).
- W.J. Choi, et al., Rapid development of dual porous poly (lactic acid) foam using fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing for medical scaffold application. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 110: p. 110693 (2020).
- J. Bustillos, et al., Integration of graphene in poly (lactic) acid by 3D printing to develop creep and wear‐ resistant hierarchical nanocomposites. Polymer composites. 39(11): p. 3877-3888 (2018).
- C. Ruiz, et al., Fabrication of hard–soft microfluidic devices using hybrid 3D printing. Micromachines. 11(6): p. 567 (2020).
- S. Kim, et al., A study of the development and improvement of fashion products using a FDM type 3D printer. Fashion and Textiles. 6(1): p. 1-24 (2019).
- A. Mohammadi, et al., A practical 3D-printed soft robotic prosthetic hand with multi-articulating capabilities. PloS one. 15(5): p. e0232766 (2020).
- M. Mahmoudi, et al., Additive-free and support-free 3D printing of thermosetting polymers with isotropic mechanical properties. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 13(4): p. 5529-5538 (2021).
- B. Ranabhat, S. Kirmse, and K.-T. Hsiao. Feasibility study of novel magnetic compaction force assisted additive manufacturing (MCFA-AM) methodology for continuous carbon fiber reinforced polymer (C-CFRP) composites. in SAMPE Conference Proceeding, Charlotte, NC. (2019).
- A. Matschinski, et al., Fiber formation of printed carbon Fiber/Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) with different nozzle shapes. Polymer International. 70(8): p. 1109-1117 (2021).
- S. Valvez, et al., 3D printed continuous carbon fiber reinforced PLA composites: A short review. Procedia Structural Integrity. 25: p. 394-399 (2020).
- O. Konovalova, and E. Yumashev. 3d printing of individual shoes using natural fibers. in AIP Conference Proceedings. AIP Publishing LLC, (2022).