Surface texturing by femtosecond laser of hierarchical porous freeze foam structures for orthopedic applications

  • 1 Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria
  • 2 Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS, Dresden, Germany
  • 3 Physics Department, Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski", Bulgaria


The main challenge in the design of tissue substitutes is still the realization of a customized implant with good interface properties without any risk of subsequent inflammation. The application of laser bases methods to development of constructs with improved biomimetic properties is an excellent strategy owing to the possibility of fabricating complex scaffolds with hybrid porosities. The micro/nano porosity is an important condition for cell viability and tissue ingrowth. An interconnected pore structure will permit inwards diffusion of oxygen and nutrients and outwards diffusion of waste products from the scaffold. Ceramic materials are difficult to process due to their brittleness and chemical inertness, but they can be patterned by high energy ultrafast laser radiation, generating specific isotropic and anisotropic micro/nano topographies. The aim of this study is to be able to develop functional, porous biomaterials surface with improved porosity, biocompatibility, biodegradation rate and multifunctionality by employing Freeze Foaming/Hybrid Shaping technology and high precision ultra-short laser processing method. An important advantage of this approach is that the mechanical properties of treated surfaces remain the same after the treatment, which modifies roughness and hydrophilicity and therefore affects the response of cells and bacteria.



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