The principles and peculiarities of the molecular layering (ML) method, known often in foreign works under the name of Atomic Layer Deposition, are considered. ML method was created in the middle of the last century by Soviet-Russian scientists V. B. Aleskovskii and his student S. I. Koltsov. Among the first who after Russian scientists began to carry out research on the method of ML were scientific groups from Finland (T. Suntola, S. Hauk, M. Leskela, M. Rital, etc.), the GDR (V. Hanke, G. Olman, B. Horvath and others), Bulgaria (G. Bliznakov, K. Petrov, D. Mekhanjiev, D. Damianov and others). The structural-dimensional effects manifested in products obtained using the ML method are analyzed. The results of practical application of nanotechnology on the principles of the ML method in various high-tech industries are presented: sensor sensors, membrane catalytic processes, catalysts, sorbents, composite materials, alternative energy sources, electret materials etc.