In Albania, prior to the 1990’s, the industrial sector was the leading energy consumption sector but actually, the main cause of pollution especially in urban areas, carcinogenic, respiratory and heart diseases come from road transport sector. The environmental situation in Albania after 30 years has undergone major changes due to factors that directly or indirectly influence the degree of its pollution which still remain an unresolved issue. Tirana’s fleet vehicle shares around 35% of the total car fleet registered in Albania. DCI vehicles constitute approximately 71% and the rest petrol powered engine, while the number of EV and other friendly fuel sources is almost zero. The proposed work aims at developing different transport scenarios contributing to the mitigation of GHG in Albania. Using EnergyPLAN model, 3 different scenarios are proposed, considering both most prominent national documents firstly: “Albanian Energy Strategy 2018- 2030” which requires a reduction level of CO2 by 11.5% in 2030 referring to 2006 to attain a RES share of 42% to the TPES and secondly to create a sustainable transport sector as foreseen in “National Sector Strategy for Transport 2016-2020”. This modelling framework analyse the actual transport situation and can address some beneficial values and solution which can be used from policy makers in the country to better assess the potential for a sustainable, environmentally friendly and cost-effective transport sector based on RES.
- Malka, L., Konomi, I., Gjeta, A., Drenova, S., & Gjikoka, J. (2020). An approach to the large-scale integration of wind energy in Albania. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 10(5). https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.9917
- Malka, L., Bebi, E., Alcani, M., Konomi, I., Bartocci, P., Berberi, E., Shehu(Tola), M., Gjeta, A., & Rrapaj, E. (2021). THE FUTURE STRATEGIES OF THE WIND POWER DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIA: CASE STUDY: ―QAFE THANE,‖ POGRADEC, ALBANIA. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 11(4). https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11228.
- Bebi, E., Malka, L., Konomi, I., & Alcani, M. (2020). An analysis towards a sustainable energy system in albania highly supported by large scale integration of wind resources: A case study of mamaj wind farm. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy,11(1). https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.10622.
- IRENA (2020), Reaching zero with renewables: Eliminating CO2 emissions from industry and transport in line with the 1.5oC climate goal, International Renewable Energy Agency, Abu Dhabi.
- European Environment Agency. (2020). Environmental noise in Europe - 2020. In European Environment Agency (Issue 22/2019).
- Albanian Institute of Statistics. 2014. ―Albanian Institute of Statistics Strategic Plan, 2008-2014: Environmental Situation.‖ Accessed May 15, 2014. http://www.instat.gov.al/al/themes/mjedisi.aspx.
- Lorenc Malka, & Flamur Bidaj. (2015). Opacity Evaluation for Passenger Diesel Vehicle Cars in Tirana. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering A, 4(7). https://doi.org/10.17265/2162- 5298/2015.07.003.
- Malka, L., & Dhoska, K. (2016). Analysis of environmental impact caused from diesel passenger cars in Tirana district by using PEMS method: cases of Lancia and Citroen. International Journal of Scientific Reports, 2(6). https://doi.org/10.18203/issn.2454- 2156.intjscirep20161876.
- Connolly, D., H. Lund, B. V. Mathiesen, and M. Leahy. (2010). A Review of Computer Tools for Analysing the Integration of Renewable Energy into Various Energy Systems. Applied Energy 87(4): 1059–82.
- IRENA (2021), Renewables Readiness Assessment: Albania, International Renewable Energy Agency, Abu Dhabi;
- Ministry of Infrastructure and energy. (2018). Sectorial strategy of transport & action plan 2016-2020: First monitoring report. June 2018, 1–167.
- European Commission, Combined evaluation roadmap / inception impact assessment for the European vehicle emissions standards – Euro 7 for cars, vans, lorries and buses, 27 March 2020 1/2.
- Of, D., Emission, P. V. I., & For, S. (2022). Legislative train 06.2021 1. March 2020, 2020–2021. Accessible https://www.europarl.europa.eu/legislative-train/theme-a-european-green-deal/file-post-euro6vi-emission standards/06-2021
- Strategjia Kombëtare e Energjisë. (2018-2030), Available from: http://www.kesh.al/admini/pdflinks/86.pdf, 10
- EUROSTAT (2019a), Energy balance sheets 2019 edition, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg; INSTAT (2020a), General balance of energy, www.instat.gov.al/en/themes/environment-and energy/energy/#tab2 (accessed January 2020).
- IRENA (2019), Renewable energy market analysis: South East Europe, International Renewable Energy Agency, Abu Dhabi.
- Rregullator, E. (2021). RAPORT VJETOR Gjëndja e Sektorit të Energjisë dhe Veprimtaria e ERE-s gjatë Vitit 2020.
- INSTAT (2020b), Electricity balance, www.instat. gov.al/en/themes/environment-and-energy/energy/#tab2 (accessed January 2020).
- IEA. (2020), Renewable Power. Paris: IEA. Available from: https://www.iea.org/reports/renewable-power
- MIE (2018a), Renewable energy progress report 2017, Ministry of Infrastructure and Energy, Tirana.
- EUROSTAT (2019b), Energy Balances, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/ data/energy-balances (accessed February 2020).
- Malka, L., Londo, A., Gebremedhin, A., & Dhoska, K. (2016). Analysis of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide emissions from diesel common rail engines and finding the correlation between velocity and emissions in the cases of Lancia Thesis and Citroen C4. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789813146587_0012.
- INSTAT (2021). Available from: http://www.instat.gov.al/en/themes/industry-trade-and-services/transport-and-accidents/#tab2
- Leskoviku, A. (2019). Bilanci Kombetar i Energjisë 2018 Agjencia Kombëtare e Burimeve Natyrore. 1–31.
- INSTAT, (2021), http://www.instat.gov.al/al/temat/mjedisi-dhe-energjia/mjedisi/#tab2
- Sun, Xiaoyang & Zhang, Baosheng & Tang, Xu & Mclellan, Benjamin & Höök, Mikael. (2016). Sustainable Energy Transitions in China: Renewable Options and Impacts on the Electricity