Positioning a holistic approach for integration of renewable energy powered charging stations into a nationwide electrical power distribution system

  • 1 University of Montenegro, Montenegro
  • 2 King's College, London, United Kingdom
  • 3 Montenegrin Pan-European Union, Montenegro
  • 4 Igor Milošević


This paper explores various models of integrating independent Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EVCSs) into Montenegro’s electricity distribution system (EDS) and energy market. It examines different possibilities by applying a multidisciplinary approach to the EDS integration coupled with market frameworks to form a novel holistic perspective for participations and influences of various stakeholders. The primary goal is to envisage and achieve a more efficient integration of different prosumers models that own and engage independent EVCSs with photovoltaic systems into the EDS and transport infrastructure. This approach is aimed at reducing CO2 emissions, promoting electromobility, engagement of citizens, and facilitating distributed renewable electricity generation at the point of consumption. Through the analysis of each of the three identified prosumer models, we give specifics of the integration within the grid, solar energy exploitation potentials, practical options for energy provisioning during and outside sunny periods etc. Economic, legal, and technical implications are integrated, and recommendations are provided using economic modelling and game theory formulations between the relevant actors and within regulatory provisions to optimize electric mobility in Montenegro.



  1. K.J. Warner, G.A. Jones, “The 21st Century Coal Question: China, India, Development, and Climate Change”, Atmosphere 2019, 10, 476.
  2. V. Corovic, V. Dosljak, A. Mihailovic, M. Jelovac, M. Muhadiovic, P. Raicevic, A. Bracanovic, I. Milosevic, “Towards a Comprehensive Model for Objectives-driven Regional Distributions of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations”, To appear in MECO 2024 conference, June 2024, Budva, Montenegro.
  3. C.J. Day, D.W. Bunn, “Divestiture of Generation Assets in the Electricity Pool of England and Wales: A Computational Approach to Analyzing Market Power”, Journal of Regulatory Economics 19, 123– 141 (2001).
  4. E. Espe, V. Potdar, E. Chang, “Prosumer Communities and Relationships in Smart Grids: A Literature Review, Evolution and Future Directions”. Energies 2018, 11, 2528.
  5. S. Grijalva and M. U. Tariq, "Prosumer-based smart grid architecture enables a flat, sustainable electricity industry," ISGT 2011, Anaheim, CA, USA, 2011, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/ISGT.2011.5759167.
  6. “Energy prosumers in Europe - Citizen participation in the energy transition”, EEA (European Environment Agency) Report, No 01/2022, 2022, doi:10.2800/030218.
  7. M. S. Alam, F. S. Al-Ismail, A. Salem and M. A. Abido, "High-Level Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources Into Grid Utility: Challenges and Solutions," in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 190277- 190299, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3031481

Article full text

Download PDF