• CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Evapotranspiration with strawberries grown in drip irrigation conditions

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 6, pg(s) 220-222

    Evapotranspiration of a strawberry, ever-bearing variety Polka in three-year (2011- 2013) field experiments with drip irrigation on leached cinnamon forest soil in the area of Chelopechene, Sofia district. Different irrigation regimes have been tested: from fully satisfying the daily needs of the crop from water to irrigation with 20% and 40% reduced irrigation rates. During the research period, the total evapotranspiration rate for the strawberry growing season was 213 mm in average. Average 24-hour values vary by date. The highest are in the first and second ten-day period of June (harvest period).

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Irrigation regime for long-fruit cucumbers grown under greenhouse conditions

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 4, pg(s) 153-155

    The deficit of the irrigation water requires irrigation technologies of more efficient water use. For cucumbers the most suitable is the drip irrigation. For establish the appropriate irrigation schedule of cucumbers under the soil and climate conditions in the village of Chelopechene, near Sofia city, research was conducted with drip irrigation adopting varying irrigation schedules – from fully meeting the daily crops water requirements cucumbers to reduced depths with 20% and 40%. Have been established irrigation schedule, irrigation water productivity and yields of in plastic unheated greenhouses of the Sofia plant.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Relation between the irrigation rate and the yield of long-fruit cucumbers grown in the Sofia field

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 2, pg(s) 78-79

    In order to establish the parameters of the dependence of irrigation norm – yields of long – fruit cucumbers a field experiment was carried out in the period 2001-2004, on a chromic luvisols soil (chromic forest soil) . Different irrigation regimes have been tested – from full satisfaction of the culture’s daily needs of water, to irrigation with irrigation norms reduced with 20% and 40% .The soil moisture content in the layer 0-0.5 m is used as a criterion for determining the time for making a polish. Under optimal variant (variant 2), the same is maintained with over 85% of WHC.
    It has been found that reducing the irrigation rate leads to a corresponding reduction in yield but it is disproportionate. In all cases, the reduction in yield is less than the decrease in the irrigation rate.Parameters of “water-yield” dependency are determined by the two-step formula of Davidov, which approximates the test points by S-curve at a correlation coefficient R = 0,999. The results show the variation of yields depending on the reduction of the irrigation rate. In the calculations obtained, the values of the gradation indicators n = 2,25 and m = 1,48 can be used to optimize the irrigation regimens of long-fruit cucumbers.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Irrigation regime of green bean cultivated as an intercropping culture in unheated greenhouses with drip irrigation

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 2, pg(s) 74-77

    The production of green beans in plastic unheated greenhouses is relevant when grown as a intercropping culture. Rrotation of crops is an important biological factor for increasing soil fertility, and year round production of vegetables in plastic greenhouses to maximize the economic impact of these expensive facilities.
    Considering the biology of the crop and especially its requirements for soil moisture, determinating for obtaining high yields and quality production is the implementation of a proper irrigation regime, as well as the use of suitable irrigation technique.
    The aim of the research is to identify the main elements of the irrigation regime of green beans, cultivated as a second intercropping culture, in drip irrigation / watering and irrigation rates, interwatering periods and number of irrigations /.
    Irrigation was carried out with a drip irrigation system type Drossbach. Variations have been tested at 85-90% of pre-watering humidity and 120% of irrigation rates- 120%; 100%; 80% and 60%.
    It has been found that the productivity of irrigation water in drip irrigation of vegetable crops grown in unheated greenhouses is increased by reducing the irrigation rate. The highest productivity of irrigation water is achieved with the 60% irrigation rate option.

  • Biophysical coefficient of long-fruit cucumbers grown in drip irrigation conditions

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 4 (2019), Issue 3, pg(s) 107-108

    Experimentally, the evapotranspiration and evaporation from the free water surface of long-fruit cucumbers grown under greenhouse conditions was established. Based on the calculated values of the evapotranspiration based on the soil humidity dynamics data during the vegetation period, the irrigation carried out and the evaporation from the free water surface determined by a class “A” evaporator, the values of the coefficient of the culture in unheated plastic greenhouses were calculated as an average for the vegetation process of cucumbers Ki is 1,46. Establishing a correlation between ET and Eo under greenhouse conditions allows a safer use of Class A evaporator data.

  • Impact of irrigation regimes in drip irrigation of raspberries on the yields

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 4 (2019), Issue 2, pg(s) 66-68

    Berry cultures – strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, blackcurrants, etc. are of great economic importance due to growing demand and high productivity. In general, they are susceptible to droughts and are so demanding for soil moisture, and their growth and yield depend to a large extent on the presence of sufficient soil moisture.
    In order to establish the irrigation regime of raspberriesin drip irrigation conditions, field experiments were conducted on the experimental field Chelopechene-Sofia. Irrigation was carried out with a pre-irrigation humidity less than 85% of WHC and variants watered with irrigation rate reduction of 20%, 40% compared to the variant irrigated at 100% of WHC and non-irrigated variant.
    Realized irrigation regimes in individual years have had an impact on the yields obtained, with the highest yields being obtained for the irrigated variants with 100% irrigation rate and the lowest in non-irrigated variants. The highest increase in yield was obtained in 2004 (dry), which is with 67% more compared to non-irrigated variants, and the smallest increase of 33% was obtained in the humid 2005.
    The analysis of meteorological factors shows that the rainfall in the country is insufficient to satisfy the requirements of plants of soil moisture, and the temperature sums over ten-days periods over the whole vegetation period considerably exceed the respective norms. This requires the use of drip irrigation for the successful production of raspberries under conditions of water deficiency and relatively high temperatures.

  • Technological and economic aspects of drip irrigation of raspberries

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 6, pg(s) 208-210

    Drip irrigation provides a fairly even mode of moisture in the soil and, along with this, favorable air, heat, microbiology and nutrition. As a result, there is an increase in yields and an improvement in the quality of production.
    In order to determine the impact of drip irrigation, on the size of the yield and the economic indicators, in the cultivation of raspberries in the soil and meteorological conditions of the area of the village of Chelopechene – Sofia researches of an everbearing variety “Lyulin” were carried out. Various options have been tested – from fully satisfying the daily needs of the culture by water, irrigation with 20% and 40% irrigation norms to non- irrigating conditions.
    The results obtained in years with different security of meteorological factors show that the drip irrigation of raspberries has a positive effect on the economic indicators of its cultivation, the costs of creating the raspberry crop, the irrigation system and the cultivation of the crop are redeemed for two or three years.

  • BUSINESS

    IRRIGATION REGIMES AND YIELD OF BERRIES IN DRIP IRRIGATION CONDITIONS AND WATER DEFICIT

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 3 (2018), Issue 4, pg(s) 171-172

    The increasing water deficit requires studies to optimize irrigation regimes and water-saving technologies to achieve economy of irrigation water at an acceptable yield level.
    In order to establish the irrigation regime in the field of “Chelopechene” Experimental Field, Sofia, there have been researches, examining different regimes – from full satisfaction of the daily needs of culture for water to irrigation with reduced by 20% and 40% water application rates.
    On average, over the survey period, the highest yields were obtained with the irrigated wit 100% water applicatipn rate. Reducing the irrigation rate leads to a corresponding reduction in yields and affects the quality of production. The application of regimes of irrigation with reduced iwater applicatipn rates is recommended  only in the case of water deficiency.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND BIOPHYSICAL COEFFICIENTS OF LONG-FRUIT CUCUMBERS GROWN IN PLASTIC GREENHOUSES IN DRIP IRRIGATION CONDITIONS

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 3, pg(s) 108-110

    The evapotranspiration of Gergana long-fruit cucumbers was established in four years of field experimentation with drip irrigation, grown in greenhouse conditions on chromic luvisol soil in the Sofia region. Different irrigation regimes have been tested – from full satisfaction of the daily needs of the culture from water to irrigation with 20% and 40% reduced water application rates. The total evapotranspiration values for the study period were determined.
    For the needs of practice and design, the ten-day values of the biophysical coefficient Z are calculated, which depends on the biological characteristics of the crop and the weather factors. On the basis of the established relationship between evapotranspiration and evaporation, the values of the coefficient of crop in unheated plastic greenhouses are calculated as the average for the cucumber vegetation curve Ki = 1.46.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    IMPACT OF MAGNETIC TREATMENT OF TOMATO AND ONION SEEDS ON THEIR PRODUCTIVITY

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 2, pg(s) 68-71

    To determine the effect of magnetically treated seeds on the productivity of tomatoes and onion in the area of the Sofia field experimental experiments were carried out with variants with magnetically treated seeds and variants without magnetic treatment of the seeds. Irrigation has been dripped in optimum irrigation mode. The yields obtained with the processed tomato seeds in tomatoes are up to 22% higher than those of untreated and onion onions to 28%, respectively.

  • BUSINESS

    EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND BIOPHYSICAL COEFFICIENTS OF RASPBERRIES GROWN IN DRIP IRRIGATION

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 3 (2018), Issue 2, pg(s) 78-81

    In order to establish the aggregate and average daily values of raspberry evapotranspiration in an experimental site in the village of Chelopechene – Sofia, drip irrigation studies were carried out on a replanting variety "Liulin" under different irrigation regimes – from full satisfaction of the daily needs of the culture from water to irrigation with 20% and 40% irrigation norms. The meteorological conditions during the study period showed an influence on the sum of the sum and day-to-day values of the culture evapotranspiration.

    On average, during the research period, the total evapotranspiration rate for the raspberry vegetation period is 4730 m3 / ha, with the main part being formed by the irrigation rate – 60% and by rainfall – 40%

    For the needs of practice and design, the ten-day values of the biophysical coefficients Z and Kp were calculated over a five-year period.

  • BUSINESS

    EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGIES ON THE YIELD OF HYBRID SUNFLOWER VARIETIES

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 3 (2018), Issue 1, pg(s) 22-30

    A Polish experience with 10 hybrids of sunflower field was made on the Chelopechene Field, Sofia, on cinnamon forest soil. Sunflower hybrids are grown under non-irrigating conditions and under irrigation conditions with drip irrigation and microwaving.

    The meteorological conditions during the study period determined the number of irrigations and the size of the irrigation and irrigation norms of the culture.

    It has been found that the yields obtained under irrigation conditions are higher than 13 to 46%, with drip irrigation giving better results than sprinkling.

    The Maritsa, San Luka and A58xC23 hybrids have been shown to be suitable for growing in non-irrigated conditions, while the hybrids "Vokil", "Michaela" and "Maritsa" hybrids are irrigated.