• CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Study of the influence of the irrigation regime on the yield of short-fruited cucumbers grown in open areas under drip irrigation

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 67 (2021), Issue 2, pg(s) 68-70

    In order to establish the irrigation regime of short-fruited cucumbers in open areas in the soil-meteorological conditions of the area of the village of Chelopechene – Sofia, researches were carried out in drip irrigation of cucumbers variety “Levina”, testing different regimes – from full satisfaction of daily needs the culture from water to irrigation with reduction by 30% of the irrigation norm. A variant with a 30% increase in the irrigation rate was also tested.
    The obtained results show that the cultivation of short-fruited cucumbers for fresh consumption in open areas requires 15 waterings with an average irrigation rate of 18.3 mm, which is realized at different intervals depending on plant development and the stress of metrological factors and irrigation rate 280 mm.
    The realized irrigation regimes have influenced the formation of yields of short-fruited cucumbers. The yields during the three years of the experiment varied from 2368 to 5404 kg / dka, with the highest yields being obtained in the first and second years. Yields in the third year were lower by 30% as a result of adverse weather conditions, which led to a shortening of the growing season of the crop.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Studies to establish evapotranspiration and biophysical coefficients of pears grown in drip irrigation

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 5, pg(s) 190-192

    To determine the total and average evapotranspiration of pears during its cultivation under soil and meteorological conditions in the area of the village of Chelopechene – Sofia, studies were conducted on drip irrigation (KP-4.6 drip trays) of pear plantation of the variety “Hardenponova maslovka”.
    Meteorological conditions during the study period influenced the size and daily average values of culture evapotranspiration.
    The total evapotranspiration for the pear growth period of 536 mm was determined, and the daily values of biophysical coefficients Z, R and Kp were calculated for practical use and design, which depend on the biological features of the crop and the meteorological factors.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Water productivity and the effect of watering on apples grown under conditions of optimal irrigation and water deficit

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 4, pg(s) 150-153

    In order to determine the productivity and the effect of irrigation on apples grown under soil and meteorological conditions in the area of the village of Chelopechene – Sofia, research was conducted on drip irrigation of a plantation of the “Florina” variety, and different regimes were tested – from complete satisfaction of the daily needs of water to irrigate the culture with irrigation rates reduced by 20% and 40%. A non-irrigation variant has also been tested.
    The productivity of the irrigation rate at optimal irrigation varies by years from 16.3 to 28.0 kg.ha-1.mm-1, and at 40% reduction of the irrigation rate from 19.3 to 26.0 kg.ha-1. mm-1
    The highest values of productivity of the irrigation rate are reached at irrigation with a 40% reduction of the irrigation rate, in the dry 2004 high values were obtained and at the variant irrigated with 100% irrigation rate 28,0 kg.ha-1.mm-1
    The optimization of moisture in the active soil layer contributes to a significant increase and stabilization of yields, which for the test conditions are from 1266 to 2087 kg / dka. Additional yields ranged from 542 to 821 kg / dka, averaging over the study period.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Water productivity and the effect of watering on apples grown under conditions of optimal irrigation and water deficit

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 2, pg(s) 81-85

    In order to determine the productivity and the effect of irrigation on apples grown under soil and meteorological conditions in the area of the village of Chelopechene – Sofia, research was conducted on drip irrigation of a plantation of the “Florina” variety, and different regimes were tested – from complete satisfaction of the daily needs of water to irrigate the culture with irrigation rates reduced by 20% and 40%. A non-irrigation variant has also been tested.
    The productivity of the irrigation rate at optimal irrigation varies by years from 16.3 to 28.0 kg.ha-1.mm-1, and at 40% reduction of the irrigation rate from 19.3 to 26.0 kg.ha-1. mm-1
    The highest values of productivity of the irrigation rate are reached at irrigation with a 40% reduction of the irrigation rate, in the dry 2004 high values were obtained and at the variant irrigated with 100% irrigation rate 28,0 kg.ha-1.mm-1
    The optimization of moisture in the active soil layer contributes to a significant increase and stabilization of yields, which for the test conditions are from 1266 to 2087 kg / dka. Additional yields ranged from 542 to 821 kg / dka, averaging over the study period.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Studies to establish evapotranspiration and biophysical ratios of raspberries grown in drip irrigation

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 1, pg(s) 30-35

    To establish the totals and average daily evapotranspiration of raspberry under the soil and climate conditions in the village of Chelopechene, near Sofia city research was conducted with drip irrigation of plantations with variety “Lyulin” adopting varying irrigation schedules – from fully meeting the daily crop water requirements to reduced depths with 20% and 40%.
    The meteorological conditions during the study period have been influenced by the totals and average daily On average, during the research period the magnitude of the total evapotranspiration for the vegetation period of the raspberry is 482 mm, with the highest values reaching 592 mm in the dry 2000.
    For the needs of the practice and the design are calculated also the ten-day values of the biophysical coefficient Z and kb, which depend on the biological characteristics of the culture and the meteorological factors.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Evapotranspiration with strawberries grown in drip irrigation conditions

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 6, pg(s) 220-222

    Evapotranspiration of a strawberry, ever-bearing variety Polka in three-year (2011- 2013) field experiments with drip irrigation on leached cinnamon forest soil in the area of Chelopechene, Sofia district. Different irrigation regimes have been tested: from fully satisfying the daily needs of the crop from water to irrigation with 20% and 40% reduced irrigation rates. During the research period, the total evapotranspiration rate for the strawberry growing season was 213 mm in average. Average 24-hour values vary by date. The highest are in the first and second ten-day period of June (harvest period).

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Irrigation regime for long-fruit cucumbers grown under greenhouse conditions

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 4, pg(s) 153-155

    The deficit of the irrigation water requires irrigation technologies of more efficient water use. For cucumbers the most suitable is the drip irrigation. For establish the appropriate irrigation schedule of cucumbers under the soil and climate conditions in the village of Chelopechene, near Sofia city, research was conducted with drip irrigation adopting varying irrigation schedules – from fully meeting the daily crops water requirements cucumbers to reduced depths with 20% and 40%. Have been established irrigation schedule, irrigation water productivity and yields of in plastic unheated greenhouses of the Sofia plant.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Relation between the irrigation rate and the yield of long-fruit cucumbers grown in the Sofia field

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 2, pg(s) 78-79

    In order to establish the parameters of the dependence of irrigation norm – yields of long – fruit cucumbers a field experiment was carried out in the period 2001-2004, on a chromic luvisols soil (chromic forest soil) . Different irrigation regimes have been tested – from full satisfaction of the culture’s daily needs of water, to irrigation with irrigation norms reduced with 20% and 40% .The soil moisture content in the layer 0-0.5 m is used as a criterion for determining the time for making a polish. Under optimal variant (variant 2), the same is maintained with over 85% of WHC.
    It has been found that reducing the irrigation rate leads to a corresponding reduction in yield but it is disproportionate. In all cases, the reduction in yield is less than the decrease in the irrigation rate.Parameters of “water-yield” dependency are determined by the two-step formula of Davidov, which approximates the test points by S-curve at a correlation coefficient R = 0,999. The results show the variation of yields depending on the reduction of the irrigation rate. In the calculations obtained, the values of the gradation indicators n = 2,25 and m = 1,48 can be used to optimize the irrigation regimens of long-fruit cucumbers.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Irrigation regime of green bean cultivated as an intercropping culture in unheated greenhouses with drip irrigation

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 2, pg(s) 74-77

    The production of green beans in plastic unheated greenhouses is relevant when grown as a intercropping culture. Rrotation of crops is an important biological factor for increasing soil fertility, and year round production of vegetables in plastic greenhouses to maximize the economic impact of these expensive facilities.
    Considering the biology of the crop and especially its requirements for soil moisture, determinating for obtaining high yields and quality production is the implementation of a proper irrigation regime, as well as the use of suitable irrigation technique.
    The aim of the research is to identify the main elements of the irrigation regime of green beans, cultivated as a second intercropping culture, in drip irrigation / watering and irrigation rates, interwatering periods and number of irrigations /.
    Irrigation was carried out with a drip irrigation system type Drossbach. Variations have been tested at 85-90% of pre-watering humidity and 120% of irrigation rates- 120%; 100%; 80% and 60%.
    It has been found that the productivity of irrigation water in drip irrigation of vegetable crops grown in unheated greenhouses is increased by reducing the irrigation rate. The highest productivity of irrigation water is achieved with the 60% irrigation rate option.

  • Biophysical coefficient of long-fruit cucumbers grown in drip irrigation conditions

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 4 (2019), Issue 3, pg(s) 107-108

    Experimentally, the evapotranspiration and evaporation from the free water surface of long-fruit cucumbers grown under greenhouse conditions was established. Based on the calculated values of the evapotranspiration based on the soil humidity dynamics data during the vegetation period, the irrigation carried out and the evaporation from the free water surface determined by a class “A” evaporator, the values of the coefficient of the culture in unheated plastic greenhouses were calculated as an average for the vegetation process of cucumbers Ki is 1,46. Establishing a correlation between ET and Eo under greenhouse conditions allows a safer use of Class A evaporator data.

  • Impact of irrigation regimes in drip irrigation of raspberries on the yields

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 4 (2019), Issue 2, pg(s) 66-68

    Berry cultures – strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, blackcurrants, etc. are of great economic importance due to growing demand and high productivity. In general, they are susceptible to droughts and are so demanding for soil moisture, and their growth and yield depend to a large extent on the presence of sufficient soil moisture.
    In order to establish the irrigation regime of raspberriesin drip irrigation conditions, field experiments were conducted on the experimental field Chelopechene-Sofia. Irrigation was carried out with a pre-irrigation humidity less than 85% of WHC and variants watered with irrigation rate reduction of 20%, 40% compared to the variant irrigated at 100% of WHC and non-irrigated variant.
    Realized irrigation regimes in individual years have had an impact on the yields obtained, with the highest yields being obtained for the irrigated variants with 100% irrigation rate and the lowest in non-irrigated variants. The highest increase in yield was obtained in 2004 (dry), which is with 67% more compared to non-irrigated variants, and the smallest increase of 33% was obtained in the humid 2005.
    The analysis of meteorological factors shows that the rainfall in the country is insufficient to satisfy the requirements of plants of soil moisture, and the temperature sums over ten-days periods over the whole vegetation period considerably exceed the respective norms. This requires the use of drip irrigation for the successful production of raspberries under conditions of water deficiency and relatively high temperatures.

  • Technological and economic aspects of drip irrigation of raspberries

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 6, pg(s) 208-210

    Drip irrigation provides a fairly even mode of moisture in the soil and, along with this, favorable air, heat, microbiology and nutrition. As a result, there is an increase in yields and an improvement in the quality of production.
    In order to determine the impact of drip irrigation, on the size of the yield and the economic indicators, in the cultivation of raspberries in the soil and meteorological conditions of the area of the village of Chelopechene – Sofia researches of an everbearing variety “Lyulin” were carried out. Various options have been tested – from fully satisfying the daily needs of the culture by water, irrigation with 20% and 40% irrigation norms to non- irrigating conditions.
    The results obtained in years with different security of meteorological factors show that the drip irrigation of raspberries has a positive effect on the economic indicators of its cultivation, the costs of creating the raspberry crop, the irrigation system and the cultivation of the crop are redeemed for two or three years.