E-mobility is generally regarded as a zero emission. This sentence can only be true in a very small scope, as only in relation to selected parameters and in a very limited its dimension. An example of this is the measurement of CO2 emissions from BEV (battery electric vehicle), which is known to be zero. The situation can change radically if it will be take into account the emissions in the production of electricity that is necessary for the movement of this type of vehicles. This paper presents this problem, taking into account the energy mix in various countries of the European Union. Simulation studies show that there are already countries in the EU in which the operation of electric vehicles makes sense. Especially when it concerns CO2 emissions. Emissions below the standards for 2025 can be obtained there. Unfortunately, in most EU countries, the operation of BEV is associated with an increase (in relation to today) of CO2 emissions. Without the change of energy policy, and in particular the energy mix, the introduction of e-mobility is problematic.
Theory of factor experiment (matrix of impact) of greenhouse as a composition system for biogas production and regulation for permissible emissions of harmful materials in atmosphere
By applying a complex, exact and scientific approach, was performed the development, calculation and analysis of a complex pilot installation (bioenergetics system consisting of the following elements: greenhouse for early vegetation crops, digester and internal combustion engine powered by biogas). Using the factorial experiment, i.e. applying the matrix of influence, a complete optimization of the internal combustion engine was performed in function of the other elements of the installation. An analysis is also made from the aspect of the positive current EU regulations in the field of air pollution.
VEHICLE ENGINES. APPLICATION OF FUELS TYPES. EFFICIENCY
The article deals with the effects of butanol-diesel fuel blends on performance and exhaust emissions of a turbocharged, CRDI 1154HP (85 kW) diesel engine. Load characteristics were taken when running with normal diesel fuel and n-butanol-diesel fuel blends DB1, DB2, DB3, and DB4 possessing 1wt%, 2wt%, 3wt%, and 4wt% of fuel-oxygen at speeds of 1800 and 2500 rpm. The auto-ignition delay increased by 15.5%, burn angle MBF 50 and the combustion ended 7.6% and 6.5% earlier in the cycle, bsfc and engine efficiency were 2.8% and 1.9% higher when using fuel blend DB4 than the respective values of 17.40, 20.90 and 61.20 CADs, 234.4 g/kWh and 0.361 a fully loaded (100%) straight diesel develops at speed of 2500 rpm. The NOx, CO, THC emissions, and smoke decreased by 5.1%, 29.5%, 3.7 times, and 48.1% against the respective values of 1020 ppm, 563 ppm, 260 ppm, and 12.9% a straight diesel develops under these test conditions.
DOMINANT TECHNOLOGIES IN “INDUSTRY 4.0”
Paper presents an exhaust gas emission investigation for a high speed turbocharged direct injection diesel engine MAN D0826 LOH15 during the fuel and air mass flow variation. Emission analysis is based on a two measurement sets at two different engine rotational speeds (1500 rpm and 2400 rpm). The analyzed diesel engine operates with a standard diesel fuel. Measured emissions were nitrogen oxides (NOx), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and soot emissions. Calculated emissions were carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by using equations from the literature. For the observed diesel engine, much higher NOx and HC emissions were obtained at the lower engine rotational speed. Soot emission of the analyzed engine, in general, does not have to depend on engine rotational speed. Calculated CO2 emissions depend primarily on the fuel mass flow and the carbon mass fraction in used fuel.
THE NEW EXHAUST AFTERTREATMENT SYSTEM FOR REDUCING NOX EMISSIONS OF DIESEL ENGINES: LEAN NOX TRAP (LNT). A STUDY
In nowadays, reducing emissions of the nitrogen oxide (NOx) in diesel engines become a principal goal for the future. The new technology Lean NOx Trap (LNT, is also known like NOx adsorber catalyst (NAC) or NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR) catalyst) can be applied on passenger cars, light and heavy-duty diesel engines to reduce NOx emissions substantially. The NOx emissions are absorbed onto a catalyst during lean engine operation. After the catalyst is saturated, the system is regenerated in short periods of fuel rich operation during which NOx is catalytically reduced. This paper presents a literature review about the function and importance of LNT as the new aftertreatment exhaust system for reducing the NOx emissions of the new generation of diesel engines.
Today, there is a significant interest in alternative energy sources for vehicles, as a result of continuous concern for the environmental impact and for consumption of the primary energy sources, which are limited. Diesel engines present particularly significant emission like nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, hydrocarbons and black smoke. This paper present a literature review on some alternative fuels for diesel engines, as pure plant oil, biodiesel and compressed natural gas, and their impact on diesel engine emissions.