• CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Design of irrigation systems for gardens by alternating greywater and well water

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 5, pg(s) 167-170

    Water is the basic source of life for plants, animals, and humans. However, the impact of climate change drastically reduces its sources. Rational consumption of clean water leads to the need for finding alternative water sources for irrigation of gardens. As an alternative source, greywater can play an important role. Greywater is waste water from households, which does not contain faecal compounds. The aim of this paper to present design concepts of systems for collecting, purifying and application of greywater and well water for irrigation of gardens. The concept is developed using previous own research results, as well as available literature, on the benefits and risks of using greywater, and the effects of purifying greywater and well water through various treatment systems. The paper presents two systems: (1) a system which allows the storage and irrigation using raw greywater and (2) a system where greywater supply is not continuous. The second system is suitable not only for households but also for other facilities, e.g. touristic, recreational and weekend resorts. This system proposes alternate irrigation with grey and well water for resolving two problems: inappropriate greywater quality and inappropriate water quantity. In general, the system reduces the risk of soil degradation and is water saving by automatically adjusting irrigation with regard to the soil moisture content.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Irrigation regime for long-fruit cucumbers grown under greenhouse conditions

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 4, pg(s) 153-155

    The deficit of the irrigation water requires irrigation technologies of more efficient water use. For cucumbers the most suitable is the drip irrigation. For establish the appropriate irrigation schedule of cucumbers under the soil and climate conditions in the village of Chelopechene, near Sofia city, research was conducted with drip irrigation adopting varying irrigation schedules – from fully meeting the daily crops water requirements cucumbers to reduced depths with 20% and 40%. Have been established irrigation schedule, irrigation water productivity and yields of in plastic unheated greenhouses of the Sofia plant.

  • The batch-combined minimum tillage farming machine

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 6, pg(s) 191-194

    The working members of the batch-combined machine for minimum tillage and crop tending are combined into two separate batches. By means of the first batch, there are performed simultaneously tilling and sowing operations, but the second is intended for surface tillage and crop tending. During just one field day, the machine is capable of performing 8…10 agricultural operations, and its working members can work in three modes: 1. Soil loosening without furrow slice overturning, when the main tillage unit (wedge) is in its working condition together with lateral knives (for the eroded soils); 2. Clod furrow slice pulverization and mixing, when the main tillage unit (wedge), lateral knives and rotary tiller are in their working conditions (for the non-eroded soils); 3.Cultivation of humid soils with a partial overturning of furrow slice, when the main tillage unit (wedge), lateral knives and rotary plough (instead of tiller) are in their working conditions. The cost of oil and lubricants and operating time are reduced by 2…2,5 times, and besides, the agrotechnical terms reduce considerably. The design formula for tillage output envisages both broken and unbroken soil strips. This formula can be also used for calculation of the machine output during cultivation, sowing, cutting the irrigation channels and so on. The proposed batch-combined machine can be also considered as energy-saving, resource-saving, environmental and advanced technology.

  • BUSINESS

    EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGIES ON THE YIELD OF HYBRID SUNFLOWER VARIETIES

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 3 (2018), Issue 1, pg(s) 22-30

    A Polish experience with 10 hybrids of sunflower field was made on the Chelopechene Field, Sofia, on cinnamon forest soil. Sunflower hybrids are grown under non-irrigating conditions and under irrigation conditions with drip irrigation and microwaving.

    The meteorological conditions during the study period determined the number of irrigations and the size of the irrigation and irrigation norms of the culture.

    It has been found that the yields obtained under irrigation conditions are higher than 13 to 46%, with drip irrigation giving better results than sprinkling.

    The Maritsa, San Luka and A58xC23 hybrids have been shown to be suitable for growing in non-irrigated conditions, while the hybrids "Vokil", "Michaela" and "Maritsa" hybrids are irrigated.

  • BUSINESS

    IRRIGATION WATER PRODUCTIVITY FOR RASPBERRIES GROWN IN DRIP IRRIGATION CONDITIONS

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 3 (2018), Issue 1, pg(s) 31-34

    To determine the irrigation water productivity for raspberries during their cultivation in the soil-meteorological conditions of the area of the village of Chelopechene – Sofia, studies have been carried out with drip irrigation of a plantation with the variety "Lyulin". Various regimes have been studied – from full satisfaction of the daily needs of the culture to water, to irrigation with 20% and 40% reduction in irrigation regulations.

    The meteorological conditions during the study period determined the number of irrigations and the size of the irrigation and irrigation norms of the culture.

    On average, over the survey period, the highest yields were obtained with the watered with 100% irrigation norm option. The increase in yields resulting from the irrigation is about three times the non-irrigated option in surface drip irrigation.

    The highest irrigation water productivity of 4.3 kg of raspberries per cubic meter of water is obtained in variants irrigated with a 40% reduced irrigation rate.

  • BUSINESS

    TOP INNOVATION IN MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES (EFFECTIVE BIOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE UNDER IRRIGATION AND PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT)

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 1 (2016), Issue 6, pg(s) 27-30

    The report deals with the perspectives for developing ecologically based biological agriculture in Bulgaria, the European Union and the other countries. Innovative technology (for computerized monitoring the soil water deficit and scheduling the irrigation) replaces the periodical local (point) measurements of soil moisture. Its application helps to be realized appropriate energy level of soil moisture through ecologically accepted watering technique in each agricultural crop field. It ensures to be obtained the scientifically planned amount and quality of crop yield, saving over ten years on average 30 % of irrigation water and one third of nutrients added for plants.

  • BUSINESS

    MERAWA DAM AND MICRO HPP, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN IRAQ

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 1 (2016), Issue 5, pg(s) 30-33

    The location of the Merawa dam is situated on the Cham I Daraban River, tributary of Qala Chuwalan River, which in its turn is tributary of the Lesser Zab River. From the administrative point of view, the dam site is located in Suleimaniyah Governorate, Sharbazer District, Iraq. The proposed works consist of a 38.50 meters high Dam and HPP which aims to provide a sturdy reserve of water for hydropower, irrigation and water supply for the residential areas in the downstream. Electric power is very important for the development of the area, as this war troubled zone laks entierely electricity, moreover it is considered to be a strategic area as the Iran-Iraq border is nearby. The Dam and micro-HPP will be able to provide the area with base energy, with a sturdiness granted by the volume of the reservoir, as now the only power sources are isolated fossil-fueled generators. The energy produced by the 150 kW turbines might seem small, but the community will be able to rely on this source as it’s primary supplier.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    CRITICAL PERIOD METHOD – INNOVATIVE METHOD FOR SIZING OF THE IRRIGATION SYSTEMS: CASE KOSOVO

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 4, pg(s) 157-160

    Systematic approach and sustainable use of water and energy is the key point for human existence. Irrigation systems are one of the main directions for the development of the economy. Renewable energy sources, especially solar photovoltaic (PV) energy are suitable as input energy for the irrigation systems. By using the original and innovative scientifically sizing method named Critical Period Method, the irrigation systems are sustainable, given the economic, environmental and social indicators. This method includes design elements of the solution by subsystems: Photovoltaic generator + invertor – PV, pump station – PS and water reservoir – WR based on the critical period of operation of each one. Critical Period Method is different from the usual sizing methods because instead of a single critical period, which relates to the maximum daily water consumption, this method considers three critical periods (for subsystems PV, PS, and WR) due to the different balancing days. Each of the critical periods is determined with regards to a certain balance period. Critical day/period for subsystem PV is determined by statistical minimization, with regards to the difference between over pumped and demand quantity of water. For the subsystem, WR critical day/period is the day with maximum water demand and the shortest duration of solar radiation suitable for the operation of the pump station. A critical day/period for the subsystem PS also coincides with this critical day. Pumps use electric energy produced by using solar photovoltaic energy and causing water pumping into the water reservoir, which with its usual hydraulic role of storing water also has the function of energy reservoir. This concept is adaptable and can be implemented in the previously constructed systems, as well as for the new ones. Application of Critical Period Method replaces the installation of long energy supply lines and associated energy losses, and additionally reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Application of Critical Period Method is suitable for rural areas because of locations where classical power network is not available or has limited availability, i.e. remote areas and on islands. In order to prove this innovative method, a practical application is predicted to perform in irrigation of agriculture field in Deçan, Kosovo.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    EVALUATION OF WATER PRODUCTIVITY FOR LOWLAND RICE UNDER SENSOR BASED DEFICIT IRRIGATION SYSTEM

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 6, pg(s) 20-21

    Rice, as the main food produced in Asia, requires more water than the other cereals. Flooded irrigation, the most common method of irrigation in rice, results high water losses and emits more greenhouse gases. Changes in climate, decrease in water resources and arable lands, necessitates the water productivity increasing strategies for rice. Soil matric potential based irrigation is such a strategy to irrigate rice under these conditions. This paper presents an experiment carried out inside a climate chamber to assess the water productivity of Bg300 rice variety using above approach. Three irrigation treatments; flooded treatment with a ponding water depth of 3cm and treatments with soil matric potentials at -150mbar and -300mbar were imposed in three large containers. Soil matric potentials were maintained using tensiometers installed at a depth of 20cm. Treatment at -150mbar showed best performance in terms of yield, water productivity and water savings. This strategy is transferable to a wide range of locations under different climates and reduces time for many field experiments.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE LAND USE IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 6, pg(s) 14-16

    Irrigated agriculture plays an important role in agricultural production in Kazakhstan. In case of optimal use of land and water resources irrigated agriculture could become a significant driving force of agricultural production. Strategically important crop products such as cotton, rice, sugar beet, tobacco, vines, melons are grown only on irrigated lands of Kazakhstan.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    IRRIGATION WATER EFFICIENCY ON IRRIGATION SYSTEMS OF KAZAKHSTAN

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 4, pg(s) 19-21

    Irrigated agriculture is the largest water consuming industry in agricultural sector of Kazakhstan consuming up to 70% of the total water resources consumed by all sectors of the economy. One of the methods for increasing the irrigation water efficiency is the construction of technically advanced irrigation systems, allowing use of water-saving irrigation technology: drip irrigation, enabling to save irrigation water by 20-30% and increase the productivity by 2.0-2.7 times.

  • THE BATCH-COMBINED MINIMUM TILLAGE FARMING MACHINE

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 61 (2015), Issue 3, pg(s) 6-9

    The working members of the batch-combined machine for minimum tillage and crop tending are combined into two separate batches. By means of the first batch, there are performed simultaneously tilling and sowing operations, but the second is intended for surface tillage and crop tending. During just one field day, the machine is capable of performing 8…10 agricultural operations, and its working members can work in three modes: 1. Soil loosening without furrow slice overturning, when the main tillage unit (wedge) is in its working condition together with lateral knives (for the eroded soils); 2. Clod furrow slice pulverization and mixing, when the main tillage unit (wedge), lateral knives and rotary tiller are in their working conditions (for the non-eroded soils); 3. Cultivation of humid soils with a partial overturning of furrow slice, when the main tillage unit (wedge), lateral knives and rotary plough (instead of tiller) are in their working conditions. The cost of oil and lubricants and operating time are reduced by 2…2,5 times, and besides, the agrotechnical terms reduce considerably. The design formula for tillage output envisages both broken and unbroken soil strips. This formula can be also used for calculation of the machine output during cultivation, sowing, cutting the irrigation channels and so on. The proposed batch-combined machine can be also considered as energy-saving, resource-saving, environmental and advanced technology.