Experimentally, the evapotranspiration and evaporation from the free water surface of long-fruit cucumbers grown under greenhouse conditions was established. Based on the calculated values of the evapotranspiration based on the soil humidity dynamics data during the vegetation period, the irrigation carried out and the evaporation from the free water surface determined by a class “A” evaporator, the values of the coefficient of the culture in unheated plastic greenhouses were calculated as an average for the vegetation process of cucumbers Ki is 1,46. Establishing a correlation between ET and Eo under greenhouse conditions allows a safer use of Class A evaporator data.
Keyword: irrigation rate
CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES
EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND BIOPHYSICAL COEFFICIENTS OF LONG-FRUIT CUCUMBERS GROWN IN PLASTIC GREENHOUSES IN DRIP IRRIGATION CONDITIONS
The evapotranspiration of Gergana long-fruit cucumbers was established in four years of field experimentation with drip irrigation, grown in greenhouse conditions on chromic luvisol soil in the Sofia region. Different irrigation regimes have been tested – from full satisfaction of the daily needs of the culture from water to irrigation with 20% and 40% reduced water application rates. The total evapotranspiration values for the study period were determined.
For the needs of practice and design, the ten-day values of the biophysical coefficient Z are calculated, which depends on the biological characteristics of the crop and the weather factors. On the basis of the established relationship between evapotranspiration and evaporation, the values of the coefficient of crop in unheated plastic greenhouses are calculated as the average for the cucumber vegetation curve Ki = 1.46.
In order to establish the aggregate and average daily values of raspberry evapotranspiration in an experimental site in the village of Chelopechene – Sofia, drip irrigation studies were carried out on a replanting variety "Liulin" under different irrigation regimes – from full satisfaction of the daily needs of the culture from water to irrigation with 20% and 40% irrigation norms. The meteorological conditions during the study period showed an influence on the sum of the sum and day-to-day values of the culture evapotranspiration.
On average, during the research period, the total evapotranspiration rate for the raspberry vegetation period is 4730 m3 / ha, with the main part being formed by the irrigation rate – 60% and by rainfall – 40%
For the needs of practice and design, the ten-day values of the biophysical coefficients Z and Kp were calculated over a five-year period.
CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES
Irrigated agriculture is the largest water consuming industry in agricultural sector of Kazakhstan consuming up to 70% of the total water resources consumed by all sectors of the economy. One of the methods for increasing the irrigation water efficiency is the construction of technically advanced irrigation systems, allowing use of water-saving irrigation technology: drip irrigation, enabling to save irrigation water by 20-30% and increase the productivity by 2.0-2.7 times.