Modern metals, alloys and polymers, using in mechanical engineering, now have such high-temperature and strength properties that do not meet the advanced requirements. One of the methods to improve their physico-mechanical properties is the method of hardening by dispersed additives. Nanodiamond (ND) and diamond-carbon -containing material (NDC) of detonation synthesis, having nano-structure and high surface energy, impact structurally on any materials contacting with them. Detonation synthesis is a fundamentally new and productive type of basic technology for producing nanostructures and nanomaterials. ND of detonation synthesis is a unique material that combines the properties of diamonds and the advantages of nanostructures. Industrial development of the given method made it possible to actually reach large-volume production and consumption of ND in a number of industries. The effectiveness application of ND and NDC in industrial lubricants, polishing, composite galvano-chemical coatings, metal and polymer-based composites has been shown.