• CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Water productivity and the effect of watering on apples grown under conditions of optimal irrigation and water deficit

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 4, pg(s) 150-153

    In order to determine the productivity and the effect of irrigation on apples grown under soil and meteorological conditions in the area of the village of Chelopechene – Sofia, research was conducted on drip irrigation of a plantation of the “Florina” variety, and different regimes were tested – from complete satisfaction of the daily needs of water to irrigate the culture with irrigation rates reduced by 20% and 40%. A non-irrigation variant has also been tested.
    The productivity of the irrigation rate at optimal irrigation varies by years from 16.3 to 28.0 kg.ha-1.mm-1, and at 40% reduction of the irrigation rate from 19.3 to 26.0 kg.ha-1. mm-1
    The highest values of productivity of the irrigation rate are reached at irrigation with a 40% reduction of the irrigation rate, in the dry 2004 high values were obtained and at the variant irrigated with 100% irrigation rate 28,0 kg.ha-1.mm-1
    The optimization of moisture in the active soil layer contributes to a significant increase and stabilization of yields, which for the test conditions are from 1266 to 2087 kg / dka. Additional yields ranged from 542 to 821 kg / dka, averaging over the study period.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Water productivity and the effect of watering on apples grown under conditions of optimal irrigation and water deficit

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 2, pg(s) 81-85

    In order to determine the productivity and the effect of irrigation on apples grown under soil and meteorological conditions in the area of the village of Chelopechene – Sofia, research was conducted on drip irrigation of a plantation of the “Florina” variety, and different regimes were tested – from complete satisfaction of the daily needs of water to irrigate the culture with irrigation rates reduced by 20% and 40%. A non-irrigation variant has also been tested.
    The productivity of the irrigation rate at optimal irrigation varies by years from 16.3 to 28.0 kg.ha-1.mm-1, and at 40% reduction of the irrigation rate from 19.3 to 26.0 kg.ha-1. mm-1
    The highest values of productivity of the irrigation rate are reached at irrigation with a 40% reduction of the irrigation rate, in the dry 2004 high values were obtained and at the variant irrigated with 100% irrigation rate 28,0 kg.ha-1.mm-1
    The optimization of moisture in the active soil layer contributes to a significant increase and stabilization of yields, which for the test conditions are from 1266 to 2087 kg / dka. Additional yields ranged from 542 to 821 kg / dka, averaging over the study period.

  • SCIENCE

    ANALYSIS OF THE STRIP TILLING TECHNOLOGY – PART I

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 1 (2016), Issue 3, pg(s) 29-35

    The degradation of soils is due to a combination of factors. One of them is the annual deep plowing. In this way the soil is left exposed to the vagaries of nature for a few months. Precipitation presented by the rain drops and their energy, destroys the soil structure and activates anthropogenic erosion processes. With intensive tillage, involving reversing of the plow layer, a number of processes are initiated, leading to oxidizing and burning of organic matter and, hence, to its continuous decrease. The extensive use of large quantities of mineral fertilizers and the additional commercialization of crop rotation also have a negative effect in the form of soil degradation. With the purpose of reducing the number of passages of tractor units on the field surface, a new type of tillage is proposed, without reversal of the plow layer, but with retaining a large part of the plant residue on the surface instead.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    SOIL WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE SIBERIAN KULUNDA- DRY STEPPE

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 5, pg(s) 197-201

    From 1954 to 1963, approximately 42 million ha of the Southern Russian steppe, of which 6.2 million ha are located in Western Siberia, were converted into large-scale intensive agricultural area. The affected areas are highly vulnerable to wind erosion and the presently ongoing climate change effect. The establishment of sustainable land management practices is essential to secure agricultural production and the further economic development of the region. The assessment and management of the soil water is of great importance for crop yield potentials and protection against wind erosion. The paper presents a meteorological and soil hydrological measuring network. The results showed that the No-Tillage technology gradually formed soil conditions close to the natural dry steppe background. Furthermore, the installed techniques can be used to measure the parameter “actual evapotranspiration” which is a key factor to evaluate climate change impacts.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    TYPES OF TILLAGE AS A PREREQUISITE FOR RETENTION OR ALTERATION OF PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 5, pg(s) 11-16

    The physical and mechanical properties of soil change dynamically following each tillage and rainfall. Some of the more important ones are bulk density, (g cm−3), hydraulic conductivity in soils, saturated with water, (cm day−1), the rainfall curve, the temperature (оС) and the capacities of soil to retain water at saturation point (cm3 cm−3). Theoretically, only the upper 30 cm of soil layer experience change in the physical and mechanical properties, caused by tillage. The actual depth of the changes in the soil depends on the production technology selected. Various types of tillage are applied worldwide, corresponding to the level of development of socio-economic formations and of the production technologies. In Bulgaria, the traditional annual ploughing of soil is applied, including on slopes, giving a prerequisite for the subsequent negative consequences, such as activation of erosion processes and degradation.