• SOCIETY & ”INDUSTRY 4.0”

    Energy policy in the service of the climate – status and trends

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 8 (2023), Issue 8, pg(s) 423-426

    Despite the efforts of the world community to limit global warming by reducing the greenhouse gas emissions emitted by societies, studies show that the levels continue to rise, and this hides a number of consequences for people’s lives. The European Union, with its 8% share of generated global emissions, is not among the leaders in emitting harmful greenhouse gases, but it is among the leaders in pursuing a systematic and strict policy of climate neutrality. A European Climate Act for a green transition was introduced in 2021, setting a binding target for EU countries of net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, with an intermediate target of 55% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The purpose of this report is to follow the policy of the Union, the state and trends in the field of energy from renewable sources and energy efficiency and the participation of Bulgaria in the progress towards achieving the set goals.

  • INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS

    Intelligent Energy Guardian for Polygeneration Devices: Design, Implementation, and Experimental Evaluation

    Innovations, Vol. 11 (2023), Issue 3, pg(s) 83-85

    The article presents an intelligent energy guardian for a polygeneration device. The proposed solution aims to optimize energy usage and minimize wastage by incorporating smart control algorithms that continuously monitor and adjust the energy flow between different subsystems of the device. The energy guardian utilizes machine learning techniques to learn the device’s energy usage patterns and adapt to changing conditions, such as varying energy demands and supply constraints. The article outlines the design and implementation of the energy guardian, and presents experimental results that demonstrate its effectiveness in improving energy efficiency and reducing operational costs. Overall, the intelligent energy guardian offers a promising solution for enhancing the performance of polygeneration devices and promoting sustainable energy use.

  • TECHNOLOGICAL BASIS OF “INDUSTRY 4.0”

    Analysis of operational data on the work of hydro power plant

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 7 (2022), Issue 6, pg(s) 203-207

    Paper focuses on the use of renewable energy sources and in particular the use of water energy. A hydro power plant is a complex of facilities and equipment for converting the energy of the water flow into electrical energy. The advantages of hydro power plants are obvious – a supply of energy constantly renewed by nature itself, simplicity of operation, absence of environmental pollution. Taking into account the growing role of small and medium-sized enterprises in the economic development, both of an individual country and on a global scale, as well as the widespread orientation towards the use of renewable energy sources in the production of electricity, the main goal of the current development is the analysis of the operation of the electrical part of a specific hydro power plant with small power. Statistical processing of operational data on the change of certain variables was carried out. In conclusion, it is summarized that the hydro power plant under consideration has good operational indicators.

  • DOMINANT TECHNOLOGIES IN “INDUSTRY 4.0”

    Low power photovoltaic system implemented by means of flexible module

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 7 (2022), Issue 2, pg(s) 54-58

    Paper deals with low power photovoltaic system implemented by means of flexible module. Flexible modules powered by sunlight are really a very interesting and promising novelty, being one of the newer alternative energy sources. A selected technical solution with specific characteristics of the individual components is presented. Measurements with digital measuring equipment were performed and experimental results were presented. In conclusion, it is summarized that the tested flexible module gives good results.

  • INNOVATION POLICY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT

    Organizational determinants of creating and developing energy clusters in Poland

    Innovations, Vol. 9 (2021), Issue 4, pg(s) 134-136

    The subject of the article is organizational conditions of creating and developing energy clusters in Poland. The aim of energy clusters is the development of distributed energy. They are used to improve local energy security in a way that ensures economic efficiency, as well as in an environmentally friendly way by providing optimal organizational, legal and financial conditions. Energy clu sters also allow the use of local resources and domestic energy potential. The effectiveness of energy clusters depends on the rational and effective use of potential, i.e. locally available energy resources, renewable energy sources, innovation, entrepreneurship in the area of man ufacturing, industry, distribution, as well as management of energy consumption. The aim of the article is to analyze the formal conditions of clusters, in particular the essence of their existence, the tasks that the cluster performs and the role of key cluster participants. As a result of this paper the autor shows the the process of creation and functioning of a energy cluster.

  • Effects of the innovational development of energy sources based on the usage of domestic waste

    Innovations, Vol. 7 (2019), Issue 1, pg(s) 9-12

    Given that the topic of the invention of new technologies for the usage of alternative energy sources is following an ascending rate of constant innovative solutions, the problem with the detection of all iconomical and ecological side effects also needs to be brought to attention. Similar is the problem with the usage of renewable energy sources based on domestic waste which is also developing in that direction. This is why the initensive factors for the progress of this process are changing their dimensions and are going to be closely related with both the effective usage and improvement of the technologies, and the raising of the overall efficiency, taking into account the benefits of solving social, ecological, household and other problems. Also similar is the problem with the domestic waste used as raw material for renewable energy sources. The subject of observation of this present article is the development of this process based on innovation and the raising of its efficiency, also taking into account the side effects related to the ecology, solid and domestic waste. Measurement indicators for these effects with unified dimentional unit (leva) are suggested and an approach for measurement of their manifestation is formulated.

  • DOMINANT TECHNOLOGIES IN “INDUSTRY 4.0”

    BIOMASS AND WASTE WATER AS SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 2 (2017), Issue 1, pg(s) 29-33

    Limited non-renewable resources and growing problems related to the protection of the environment are main reasons why renewable energy sources are used more and more. This paper presents compared technical and economic analyse of two renewable energy resources, biomass and waste water, for sanitary hot water preparation (DHW). Waste water (sewage) is a source of energy which can be used for heating and cooling buildings with heat pumps. The average waste water temperature such as found in restaurants, laundries, dormitories and etc. varies in the range of 20–40 °C through the whole year. The technology is simple and proven. Biomass as a renewable source of energy has the potential to offer a cost-effective and low carbon alternative to fossil fuels. It is considered as the renewable energy source with the highest potential to contribute to the energy needs of modern society for both the industrialized and developing countries worldwide. Renewable technologies are considered as clean sources of energy and optimal use of these resources are sustainable based on current and future economic and social needs. Compared analyse of the systems is applied for public institution „Home for male children and youth with disabilities“ Prijedor, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Currently, this institution use light fuel oil and elektricity for their energy needs. The aim of this paper is to provide specific information about technology, economics and potential savings.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    CRITICAL PERIOD METHOD – INNOVATIVE METHOD FOR SIZING OF THE IRRIGATION SYSTEMS: CASE KOSOVO

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 4, pg(s) 157-160

    Systematic approach and sustainable use of water and energy is the key point for human existence. Irrigation systems are one of the main directions for the development of the economy. Renewable energy sources, especially solar photovoltaic (PV) energy are suitable as input energy for the irrigation systems. By using the original and innovative scientifically sizing method named Critical Period Method, the irrigation systems are sustainable, given the economic, environmental and social indicators. This method includes design elements of the solution by subsystems: Photovoltaic generator + invertor – PV, pump station – PS and water reservoir – WR based on the critical period of operation of each one. Critical Period Method is different from the usual sizing methods because instead of a single critical period, which relates to the maximum daily water consumption, this method considers three critical periods (for subsystems PV, PS, and WR) due to the different balancing days. Each of the critical periods is determined with regards to a certain balance period. Critical day/period for subsystem PV is determined by statistical minimization, with regards to the difference between over pumped and demand quantity of water. For the subsystem, WR critical day/period is the day with maximum water demand and the shortest duration of solar radiation suitable for the operation of the pump station. A critical day/period for the subsystem PS also coincides with this critical day. Pumps use electric energy produced by using solar photovoltaic energy and causing water pumping into the water reservoir, which with its usual hydraulic role of storing water also has the function of energy reservoir. This concept is adaptable and can be implemented in the previously constructed systems, as well as for the new ones. Application of Critical Period Method replaces the installation of long energy supply lines and associated energy losses, and additionally reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Application of Critical Period Method is suitable for rural areas because of locations where classical power network is not available or has limited availability, i.e. remote areas and on islands. In order to prove this innovative method, a practical application is predicted to perform in irrigation of agriculture field in Deçan, Kosovo.