Theoretical and methodological features of soil water regime optimization in pedagogical technologies of agroengineers training for innovative project activity

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 5, pg(s) 157-162

    Innovative scientific-technical and pedagogical bases of studying in higher education institutions by future specialists in agroengineering of the theory and calculation fundamental questions of sprinkler nozzles and devices of machines for irrigation of agricultural crops are presented. Some constructive schemes of nozzles, namely, deflector, crack, etc. are analyzed. Graphs for determining the range of the jet and determining the rational shape of the nozzle are given. It is proved that all this can be effectively applied both in the educational process during the study of agricultural machinery and equipment by students and in research and production practice. Depending on the purpose, tasks, methods of technological processes of irrigation disintegration of a water jet on drops is analyzed. An algorithm for calculating the working bodies of sprinklers is presented, it can be used by agricultural engineers during their design activities. It is established that it is effective when students first study and analyze the state of agricultural production, for example, during internships, identify shortcomings of technological processes, opportunities for improvement, level of technical support, and then, using theoretical knowledge, mastered methods of engineering calculations, design and construct working bodies of sprinklers. Formulas for determining the radius of the irrigation sector, the maximum angle of the rocker arm at which the nozzle is attached, the total travel time of the rocker arm in both directions, the speed of the liquid in the jet and more are given. The methodological features of functioning of various designs of nozzles of sprinklers are theoretically described. The results of scientific research presented in the article can be used as didactic material in lectures, during laboratory-practical classes, independent work of students, as well as graduate students and scientists at the stage of design and construction of reclamation machines. The main theoretical provisions are recommended to be included in the list of test tasks for assessing the readiness of agricultural engineering for innovative project activities. It is noted that the study of the basics of designing the working bodies of irrigation machines is one of the factors of a holistic conceptual system of protection of soils and water resources. Emphasis is placed on the fact that soil and water resources are important objects and prerequisites for the development of reclamation machines and the formation of special design competencies of agricultural engineers


    Soil and water resources as important objects and prerequisites for the design of agricultural machines and the formation of professional competencies of an agricultural engineer

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 4, pg(s) 120-125

    The scientific, technical and pedagogical bases of studying issues of soil and water protection by future specialists in agro-engineering in of higher education institutions are presented. Some concepts and categories that are used in the educational process for students to study agricultural land reclamation machinery and equipment are analyzed. Depending on the purpose, tasks, techniques of technological processes, the types of land reclamation measures are distinguished. The example of calculation of working bodies of earthmoving reclamation machines is given. According to the developed innovative studying technologies, students first study and analyze the state of agricultural production, identify the disadvantages of technological processes, the level of technical support, and then, using mathematical apparatus, methods of engineering calculations design and construct a reclamation machine. The methodological features of calculating the power balance of the earth-moving reclamation machine, which includes the power required to: isolate the material to be processed, taking into account its deformation, are theoretically described; the movement of the material being treated, that is, providing it with kinetic energy; lifting of the processed material; overcoming the friction resistance of the treated material against the surface of the working body and guide surfaces; overcoming the full resistance of the movement of the machine, taking into account the slope of the surface of the movement to the horizon; overcoming the propulsion of the propulsion; acceleration of the machine to the calculated speed of movement (overcoming the forces of inertia); drive conveyors and accessories. The developed procedure of laboratory and practical work includes the study of the methods and features of the calculation of balance capacity components of reclamation machines, taking into account such indicators as the type of soil, its density, thickness of layer, productivity, kinematics of the working body, the required lifting height, etc. The lecturer must draw up a general report on the theoretical and practical part of the laboratory and practical work in accordance with his task and protect it from the faculty of the department. The developed pedagogical technology of cross training emphasizes that soil and water resources are important objects and prerequisites for the development of agricultural machines and the formation of design competencies of agricultural engineers.

  • Protection of soils and water resources as an important factor in forming preparation to the project activity of future agroengineers in institutions of higher education

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 4, pg(s) 141-145

    Here are presented the results of scientific researches on the study of the bases of protection of soils and water resources by future agroengineering specialists in higher education institutions. In the educational process of agroengineering training, it is important to develop a motivational and cognitive criterion of preparing the future specialists for the project activity on the basis of fundamental  knowledge of the mechanical and technological properties of agricultural materials such as soil, water, fertilizers, pesticides, plants, shrubs, trees, as well as other additional products and agricultural waste, etc., for the purpose of carrying out the necessary environmental measures that will ensure the optimization of the parameters of technological processes, machines and structures which are being developed, constructed and projected. Innovative pedagogical technology of teaching is developed according to the method of gradually increasing the amount of educational material, which comes as a result from previously learned and mastered material. It is recommended that about 20% of the training program for agroengineering to be directed by obtaining general and special environmental competencies. The acquired special professional skills of agroengineers will ensure the development of project activity on the basis of preservation and multiplication of natural resources.