• MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Development in the educational process and research and production activity of modern technologies and technical means of field irrigation

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 67 (2021), Issue 3, pg(s) 85-88

    The main condition for the effective use of existing reclamation systems in Ukraine is to increase the productivity of reclaimed lands along with improving their ecological condition. This is emphasized in a number of state documents, namely: Presidentia l Decrees, Resolutions of the Verkhovna Rada, Laws of Ukraine. One of the main reasons for the weak dynamics of the revival of the domes tic reclamation complex is the lack of qualified management and technological staff in the infrastructure that provides reclamation agriculture. Therefore, in the educational process these issues are given more and more attention. Reclamation agriculture is considered b y scientists as a complex technology for sustainable development of production in the agricultural sector of the economy. There is a systematic approach to the development of modern technologies and technical means of irrigation for the sustainable development of agricultural production, obtaining quality products, preserving the fertility of lands, fauna and flora that inhabit it with important conceptual tasks of the educational process and research and production activities. Current strategic issues include: the formation of water policy in Ukraine in view of the availability of water resources and the development of adaptation measures in the context of climate change; development of conceptual bases of restoration and development of irrigation and drainage in Ukraine. And also – water resources of Ukraine and modern methods of research of aquatic ecosystems; scientific bases of formation of sustainable bioenergy agroecosystems; system of laboratory diagnostics of water-physical properties of soils; scientific and methodological bases of organization and conduct of ecological and reclamation monitoring; water and ecological risks of transformation of reclaimed lands and ways of their minimization; information technologies in scientific research in the field of agricultural reclamation, etc. Important issues in the development of modern technologies and technical means of irrigation also include: conceptual principles of irrigation management; features of designing irrigation systems; method of setting watering dates – the basis of irrigation regimes; use of the method “Penman-Monteith” for irrigation management; irrigation management based on phytomonitoring; use of remote sensing data for irrigation control; Irrigation management information system “Irrigation online”; operation of irrigation systems; technologies of repair and restoration works on hydraulic structures of irrigation systems, etc.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Theoretical and methodological features of soil water regime optimization in pedagogical technologies of agroengineers training for innovative project activity

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 5, pg(s) 157-162

    Innovative scientific-technical and pedagogical bases of studying in higher education institutions by future specialists in agroengineering of the theory and calculation fundamental questions of sprinkler nozzles and devices of machines for irrigation of agricultural crops are presented. Some constructive schemes of nozzles, namely, deflector, crack, etc. are analyzed. Graphs for determining the range of the jet and determining the rational shape of the nozzle are given. It is proved that all this can be effectively applied both in the educational process during the study of agricultural machinery and equipment by students and in research and production practice. Depending on the purpose, tasks, methods of technological processes of irrigation disintegration of a water jet on drops is analyzed. An algorithm for calculating the working bodies of sprinklers is presented, it can be used by agricultural engineers during their design activities. It is established that it is effective when students first study and analyze the state of agricultural production, for example, during internships, identify shortcomings of technological processes, opportunities for improvement, level of technical support, and then, using theoretical knowledge, mastered methods of engineering calculations, design and construct working bodies of sprinklers. Formulas for determining the radius of the irrigation sector, the maximum angle of the rocker arm at which the nozzle is attached, the total travel time of the rocker arm in both directions, the speed of the liquid in the jet and more are given. The methodological features of functioning of various designs of nozzles of sprinklers are theoretically described. The results of scientific research presented in the article can be used as didactic material in lectures, during laboratory-practical classes, independent work of students, as well as graduate students and scientists at the stage of design and construction of reclamation machines. The main theoretical provisions are recommended to be included in the list of test tasks for assessing the readiness of agricultural engineering for innovative project activities. It is noted that the study of the basics of designing the working bodies of irrigation machines is one of the factors of a holistic conceptual system of protection of soils and water resources. Emphasis is placed on the fact that soil and water resources are important objects and prerequisites for the development of reclamation machines and the formation of special design competencies of agricultural engineers

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Reduction of losses from drought by optimizing the use of water resources for irrigation of agricultural crops

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 5, pg(s) 190-192

    Drought is a major problem for plant breeding in the country during dry years. This, in parallel with the increase in the technical capabilities of agriculture, has put more emphasis on overcoming the drought phenomenon. For this purpose, efforts have been made both in the development of relevant technical concepts and in the development of appropriate methodologies and technologies. The most important activity in this direction is the redistribution of water resources mostly over time. The report presents some aspects of overcoming the effects of drought by optimizing the use of water resources.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Soil and water resources as important objects and prerequisites for the design of agricultural machines and the formation of professional competencies of an agricultural engineer

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 4, pg(s) 120-125

    The scientific, technical and pedagogical bases of studying issues of soil and water protection by future specialists in agro-engineering in of higher education institutions are presented. Some concepts and categories that are used in the educational process for students to study agricultural land reclamation machinery and equipment are analyzed. Depending on the purpose, tasks, techniques of technological processes, the types of land reclamation measures are distinguished. The example of calculation of working bodies of earthmoving reclamation machines is given. According to the developed innovative studying technologies, students first study and analyze the state of agricultural production, identify the disadvantages of technological processes, the level of technical support, and then, using mathematical apparatus, methods of engineering calculations design and construct a reclamation machine. The methodological features of calculating the power balance of the earth-moving reclamation machine, which includes the power required to: isolate the material to be processed, taking into account its deformation, are theoretically described; the movement of the material being treated, that is, providing it with kinetic energy; lifting of the processed material; overcoming the friction resistance of the treated material against the surface of the working body and guide surfaces; overcoming the full resistance of the movement of the machine, taking into account the slope of the surface of the movement to the horizon; overcoming the propulsion of the propulsion; acceleration of the machine to the calculated speed of movement (overcoming the forces of inertia); drive conveyors and accessories. The developed procedure of laboratory and practical work includes the study of the methods and features of the calculation of balance capacity components of reclamation machines, taking into account such indicators as the type of soil, its density, thickness of layer, productivity, kinematics of the working body, the required lifting height, etc. The lecturer must draw up a general report on the theoretical and practical part of the laboratory and practical work in accordance with his task and protect it from the faculty of the department. The developed pedagogical technology of cross training emphasizes that soil and water resources are important objects and prerequisites for the development of agricultural machines and the formation of design competencies of agricultural engineers.