Mechanical wear, corrosion and erosion of the structural materials in machines and apparatus are destructive processes which cause worsening of their basic operational characteristics throughout their life cycle. As a result, the technological equipment undergoes loss of efficiency and reliability. It becomes unsafe from hygienic point of view. The expenses needed for its maintenance in crease significantly as the time passes. Its economical efficiency decreases as well. Materials which are in direct contact with food products can also transmit metallic ions or low molecular compounds to the processed food products – a process which is known as “migration”. Thin Layer Activation (also known as Surface Layer Activation) is an unique, efficient and innovative radiation based method used for conducting of comprehensive studies on surface degradation of materials. It allows real-time measurements of wear intensities with exceptionally high sensitivity within the scope of several ηm/h (or μg/h). The article reviews the essential principles of the Thin Layer Activation Method (TLA Method), describes its applications, capabilities and advantages. Possible uses in food processing industry are assessed and potential benefits from its implementation are discussed. Technological equipment in food processing industry includes machines and apparatus for production and processing of food products and liquids, packaging equipment, sanitation equipment, equipment for refrigeration and maintaining of certain environmental conditions, transportation equipment and auxiliary tools and equipment.