Exploring New TechnologySolutions for the conditions of Eutric/ Haplic Vertisols and Gleyic-Chromic Luvisols

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 1, pg(s) 24-30

    Determining the sustainability of agricultural production are agro-technical activities, as the main units in any technology. A study has been carried out to evaluate the impact of crop treatment systems, mineral fertilization and integrated weed control on soil and climatic conditions in the Sofia region.
    It has been found that less intensive weeding with annual and perennial weeds is observed when using a more intensive treatment system compared to the reduced treatment option. The number of weeds per unit area is increasing in the non-fertilizing variants, but their mass is lower than the fertilizers. Deeper soil tillage contributes to maintaining the values of the physical parameters (humidity, bulk density and soil hardness) in a more favorable range. Fertilization has the most significant effect on yields during the three years of the experiment.


    Grinding characteristics and heat of combustion of sprouted wheat

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 4, pg(s) 117-119

    Pre-harvest sprouting is the premature germination of cereal seeds so that the embryo starts growing while still on the head in the field. Grain germination before the harvest is a serious problem in many wheat-growing areas of the world. The grain and flour quality parameters impacted by pre-harvest sprouting are strongly related with climatic variables and soil water condition. This process especially occurs when wet conditions delay harvest. Spouted seed is usually inadequate for flour productions. Products made of sprouted flour are generally unacceptable to producers and consumers. Moreover, it is also often inadequate as feed because microbiological contamination. However, it seems that such kind of waste grain can be utilized for energetic purposes. The aim of the present work was to study the grinding process of sprouted wheat. The heat of combustion of sprouted grain and sound grains was also determined. Three-day germinated kernels of three wheat varieties were used for investigation. After germination the wheat kernels were dried at 40°C by using an air dryer to obtain the same moisture as that of the grain before sprouting (14.0% w.b.). The sound kernels were used as a control sample. The sprouted and the sound samples of grain were ground by using the knife mill MG-200. The results showed that the sprouting of wheat had a significant influence on the grinding process, both on the particle size distribution and grinding energy requirements. The sprouting caused a decrease in the average particle size and value of specific grinding energy in all cultivars. The values of specific grinding energy ranged average from 21.6 kJ·kg-1 to 23.6 for kJ·kg-1 fore sprouted and sound kernels, respectively. The heat of combustion of sprouted grain was only slightly lower value of this parameter obtained for sound grain and ranged from 15.9 to 16.5 MJ/kg.



    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 6, pg(s) 256-260

    During the period 2011 – 2013 a field experiment was conducted at the experimental field of IASS “Obraztsov chiflik” – Ruse, with ecologically grounded crop rotation, including the cultivation of two legumes /field beans, peas/ and two cereals /wheat, malting barley/ on an area after conversion. The experiment started after the eightfold scheme of Georges Ville in 3 replications, situated after Ryumker, the size of the harvesting plot being 52,5m2. Pesticides were not applied on the crops, also and synthetic fertilizers and improversof soil, prohibited for the organic production.

    The objective of the study was to observe and describe the biological regulation of weeds in legumes and cereals, grown under conditions of organic farming.

    In the organic field, the diversity of weed species was influenced by climatic conditions, soil tillage and crops. There were differences in weed infestation of crops only in terms of quantity of weeds per m2. In that case the differences in weed infestation were in direct relationship with certain biological characteristics of the crops. The species Matricaria chamomilla (L.), Anthemis arvensis (L), Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.), Setaria viridis (L.), Echinochloa crusgalli (L.), Digitaria sanguinale (L.), Lamium purpureum (L.), Convolvulus arvensis (L.) и Cirsium arvense(L.) were reported over the whole three-year period.