Using methods of spectroscopy of thermally stimulated currents (TSC spectroscopy), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was done of the energy state of dispersed particles of different composition and structure – mineral (tripoli, shungit, clay, mica, silica) and synthetic (ultra dispersed polytetrafluoroethylene, nanodiamonds, silicate glass, metal oxides). There was established the effect of occurrence of the special energy state of dispersed particles, due to the presence of nanoscale components of the structure. There were studied parameters of the energy characteristics of the modifier (value and density of the residual charge, activation energy of the relaxation, time of charge relaxation et al.) depending on the action of technological factors – temperature, mechanical stress, energy flows. The optimal ranges of occurrence of effective modifying action in macromolecular matrices of various types – polymeric, oligomeric, combined. There were proposed technological principles formation of mechanical engineering nanocomposite materials with improved parameters of deformation and strength and tribological characteristics.