The physicochemical and structural aspects of the modification of polymeric materials and fillers, laser exposure to a given intensity. Installed effects transform the morphology of the surface layers of dispersed, semi-finished fiber and membrane to form nano-sized components with increased vigour. Modification of certain process parameters laser that achieve predetermined functional characteristics. It sets the parameters of the effect of a significant increase of strength characteristics of film semi-finished products made of thermoplastic (HDPE, LDPE, PP, PA, PET, PTFE), due to the formation of spherulitic supramolecular structures. The energy parameters of the surface layers of composites, subjected to modification of a short-pulse laser exposure. Installed effect forming electrets structures and nano-relief, providing suppression of unfavorable biochemical processes in the application of products in practice. The results of the use of materials and products subjected to laser modification, engineering and medical practice.