The importance of transport planning in public services gradually becomes to be fully appreciated in the context of the Czech Republic. Public transport such as investment and operationally intensive industries require a guaranteed long-term strategy, not only in the field of transport infrastructure, but also in the field of transport services. The first prerequisite for successful transport planning is the most accurate description of passenger flows, including the parameters affecting the choice of transport mode. These inputs are an important basis for additional steps: the creation of a line network, timetable design, creating circulation of vehicles and courses of staff, controlling, and any requests for infrastructure improvements. At the end of this article are referred specific practical examples, where thank to a compliance with the rules of theoretical transport planning it has been achieved the increased operational efficiency of public passenger rail-transport.