The purpose of this paper was to study the regularities of formation of ultrafine structure in alumina by magnetic pulse compaction (MPC) and spark plasma sintering, and the producing of nanostructured compacts having high density and microhardness. The combined application of two technologies magnetic pulse compaction and spark plasma sintering in the practice of compacting powders is very rare and unique. We have studied the microstructures of consolidated alumina samples. The anomalous zones present in volume of magnetic pulse compacted and spark plasma sintered samples of both types α and δ phases of alumina. The microstructure of the fracture surface between anomalous zones depends on the phase state of the particles of the initial powder. MPC of δ-alumina leads to a more uniform distribution of anomalous zones along diameter compact after SPS. MPC of α-alumina leads to an increase of the microhardness on the surface of compacts.